||Born in 1899, Ernest Hemingway was the second of six children born to Grace Hall and
Clarence Edmonds Hemingway. Ernest developed a love of literature and music from his
a trained opera singer and music teacher after her marriage, and gained a keen interest
outdoor sports--hunting, fishing, woodscraft--from his father, a doctor and avid naturalist.
Divided between the family's home in Oak Park, Illinois, and their summer cottage
Lake in Michigan, Ernest's childhood was happy and free from any peculiar traumas
||Hemingway graduated from high school in 1917, two months after the U.S. entry into
War I. Unable to join the military due to poor eyesight, and not wishing to follow
parent's advice to attend Oberlin, he obtained a job as a cub reporter for the Kansas City Star newspaper. While in Kansas City he discovered a way
to join the war effort and in 1918 he sailed for Paris as an ambulance driver.
||Arriving in early June, Hemingway was stationed in Italy where on July 8, at Fossalta
Piave, the Italian troops to whom he was delivering chocolate and cigarettes came
shell fire. While accounts of Hemingway's actions and injuries vary, he received a
severe wounds and spent over nine months in the new Red Cross Hospital in Milan
||Hemingway spent the better part of the next year living at home and writing but in
a falling out with his parents. He moved to Chicago where he took a newspaper job
into an apartment with another bachelor. At a party he met Hadley Richardson whom
in 1921. Shortly after the wedding the couple moved to Paris.
||Over the next five years, Hemingway wrote and traveled. He developed a strong working
relationship with Gertrude Stein and Ezra Pound, both of whom strongly influenced
writing and gave him advice, help, and support. Visiting Pamplona at Stein's suggestion
developed his life-long fascination with bull-fighting and the matadors who perform
ritualistic sport. He met and became friends with F. Scott Fitzgerald and Gerald Murphy.
also published his first book, Three Stories and Ten Poems, a
volume of short stories, in 1923, and celebrated the birth of his first child, a son,
||Back in Paris in 1926 Hemingway met and fell in love with Pauline Pfeiffer, an heiress
occasional writer for Vogue. Hadley agreed to a divorce later that year
and in May 1927, Hemingway married Pauline. During this period Hemingway published
works, The Sun Also Rises (1926) and Men Without Women (1927), which brought him critical acclaim in
America as well as Europe and established him as a serious writer.
||Hemingway and Pauline returned to the United States in 1928 to visit her family and
vacation in Key West. Pauline survived a difficult birth to present Hemingway with
second son late in the summer. This joyful news was offset later in the year by the
of Hemingway's father. Pouring his emotional turmoil into his work, Hemingway completed
novel he had been working on, and early in 1929 published A Farewell to Arms, which rocketed him to celebrity status.
||Along with fame, Hemingway acquired wealth, which he used to purchase a home in Key
and a boat, the Pilar. He and Pauline also went on safari in Africa
which inspired several stories including "The Snows of Kilimanjaro"
(1936). He spent time in Europe in 1937 and 1938 covering the Spanish Civil War for
North American Newspaper Alliance. While on this assignment he met fellow journalist
Gelhorn whom he married in 1940. Lasting only four years, a great deal of Hemingway's
marriage was spent covering World War II and competing with Martha for assignments
||By 1944, Hemingway had had enough of war. He returned to his home in Cuba and waited
Mary Welsh, whom he had met in Paris, to complete her divorce proceedings and join
were married in 1946 in Havana. Hemingway continued to write, but the late 1940s contained
long series of misfortunes for him and his family.
||The publication of The Old Man and the Sea (1952) marked the end of
Hemingway's active writing life. Though he produced a number of short stories, his
drinking and declining physical and mental health took its toll on the quality of
Following a grueling summer traveling in Spain following the 1959 bull fight season,
entered the Mayo Clinic in November 1960 where he received a diagnosis of diabetes,
cirrhosis of the liver, and depression. He was discharged in January of 1961, but
in April of the same year. He left the hospital in June, returning to his home in
Idaho, where on July 2, 1961, he died of a self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head.