University of Texas at Austin

C. Hartley Grattan:

An Inventory of His Papers at the Harry Ransom Center

Creator: Grattan, C. Hartley (Clinton Hartley), 1902-1980
Title: C. Harley Grattan Papers
Dates: circa 1920-1978
Extent: 30 record cartons (30 linear feet), 5 galley folders (gf)
Abstract: Correspondence, research materials, typescript drafts, published materials, lectures and speeches, broadcast scripts, and personal items document Hartley Grattan's career from his days as a free-lance writer through his tenure as Professor of History and Curator of the Grattan Collection of Southwest Pacificana at the University of Texas at Austin, circa 1920-1978.
Call Number: Manuscript Collection MS-1700
Language: English
Access: Open for research. Researchers must create an online Research Account and agree to the Materials Use Policy before using archival materials. Part or all of this collection is housed off-site and may require up to three business days’ notice for access in the Ransom Center’s Reading and Viewing Room. Please contact the Center before requesting this material:
Use Policies: Ransom Center collections may contain material with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations. Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in the collections without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the Ransom Center and The University of Texas at Austin assume no responsibility.
Restrictions on Use: Authorization for publication is given on behalf of the University of Texas as the owner of the collection and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder which must be obtained by the researcher. For more information please see the Ransom Center's Open Access and Use Policies.

Administrative Information

Acquisition: Purchases and gifts, 1974-1990 (R9001, G1513, G8569)
Processed by: Jane McGee, 1993; Joan Sibley, 1996; Kevin O’Sullivan, 2010

Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch

C(linton) Hartley Grattan was born on October 19, 1902, in Wakefield, Massachusetts, son of Leonard E. and Laura (Campbell) Grattan. After graduating with a B.A. degree from Clark College, Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1923, where he specialized in the history of thought and culture under historian Harry Elmer Barnes, Grattan began writing articles and reviews on American literature for H. L. Mencken's American Mercury. His first professional publication, an essay on James Russell Lowell, appeared in May 1924.
After moving to New York in 1926, Grattan pursued a career as a free-lance writer. Over the next fifty years he wrote and edited a number of books and contributed essays to many other publications. He also contributed numerous articles to newspapers and magazines, especially American Mercury, Scribner's, and Harper's, writing as a literary critic, an economist, and as an historical and social analyst. He lectured at educational and other institutions and gave many radio talks.
Grattan's first book, Why We Fought (1929, reprinted in 1969 with an afterword by the author), was one of the earliest revisionist histories of the United States' entry into World War I. Bitter Bierce: A Mystery of American Letters, a study of Ambrose Bierce, and The Peerless Leader, a study of William Jennings Bryan (completed from work begun by Paxton Hibben) were both published in 1929. The Critique of Humanism: A Symposium (1930, reprinted 1968), a controversial collection of essays edited by Grattan, contested the views of Paul Elmer More and Irving Babbitt. The Three Jameses: A Family of Minds, a biography of the famous literary family, was published in 1932 (reprinted 1962). A Preface to Chaos: War in the Making (1936) and The Deadly Parallel (1939) continued Grattan's anti-war stance, arguing against American involvement in World War II. News of the Nation (1948) was edited by Grattan and Sylvan Hoffman.
From the late 1920s, Grattan built up a considerable reputation as the first and foremost American authority on Australia and the southwest Pacific. His writings on Australia developed from his initial visit there in 1927, when he accompanied his first wife, singer Beatrice Kuper (stage name Beatrice Kay), who performed in Sydney and Melbourne. He returned to Australia in December 1936 after being awarded a grant by the Carnegie Corporation for travel, study, and the collection of materials for a social history of the Commonwealth. This visit lasted until September 1938, during which time Grattan visited many places throughout the country. He also established contact with a wide range of political and academic figures and met a number of literary figures with whom he had been corresponding since his earlier visit. He gave two series of lectures at the University of Melbourne in addition to a number of single lectures during his stay. Grattan made a third visit for a few weeks in 1940 to observe the impact of war on the country for the Institute of Current World Affairs of New York (The Crane Foundation). In 1960, he was invited to return to Australia to address the Australian Institute of Political Science (AIPS) and to spend a few weeks as a Visiting Fellow at the Australian National University in Canberra, the nation's capital.
Grattan began writing newspaper and magazine articles on Australia during his 1927 visit. His first book-length study, Introducing Australia (1942, rev. ed. 1947), became a standard work. Australia (1947), a collection of essays by a number of authorities in various fields, many of whom were Australia's distinguished intellectuals of the day, was edited by Grattan. The United States and the Southwest Pacific was published in 1961. His major two-volume history, The Southwest Pacific to 1900 and The Southwest Pacific Since 1900, was published in 1963 by the University of Michigan Press in its series, The History of the Modern World. He also contributed an essay to Australia, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands Since World War I, which was edited by William Roger Louis and William S. Livingston and published by The University of Texas Press in 1978.
From 1951 to 1959, Grattan completed a number of projects in conjunction with the Fund for Adult Education. His book In Quest of Knowledge: A Historical Perspective on Adult Education was published in 1955. His other projects included editing a publication entitled Ageing in the Modern World and contributing to the Project for Education in Leadership and the handbook Continuing Education for Adults and the State of New York. Another work, American Ideas about Adult Education 1910-1951, was edited by Grattan and published in 1959 by the Teachers College, Columbia University.
On an official level, Grattan was involved with the U.S. government's social relief program from 1934 to 1935 when he worked as the editor for the research section of the Federal Economic Relief Administration. Early in 1942, he served briefly on the Board of Economic Welfare to give advice on the Pacific region, but resigned after the Dies Committee accused him of disloyalty to the United States.
In 1953, Grattan was awarded an honorary Doctor of Letters degree from Clark University, and in 1977 he received an honorary Doctor of Laws from the Australian National University. In 1964 he joined the faculty at the University of Texas at Austin as a lecturer (later professor) in the Department of History, serving simultaneously as curator of the Grattan Collection of Southwest Pacificana. He retired in 1974.
Hartley Grattan divorced his first wife, Beatrice Kuper, in 1934 and married Marjorie (Campbell) Grattan in 1939. They had four children, Rosalind, Jacqueline, Jennifer, and John. Grattan died on June 25, 1980, in Austin, Texas.

Scope and Contents

Correspondence, research materials, typescript drafts, published materials, lectures and speeches, broadcast scripts, and personal items document Hartley Grattan's career from his days as a free-lance writer through his tenure as Professor of History and Curator of the Grattan Collection of Southwest Pacificana at the University of Texas at Austin, circa 1920-1978. The material is arranged in seven series: I. Correspondence, 1923-1980 (19 boxes); II. Works, 1924-1978; III. Response to Works, 1929-1968; IV. Research Materials; V. Academic and Curatorial Activities, The University of Texas at Austin, 1965-1974; VI. Personal Papers, circa 1920-1977; and VI. Book Withdrawals.
Although the records were acquired in a largely disorganized state and overall arrangement has been imposed, where possible the original order within each subseries has been left intact. Because most folders were untitled, folder titles have been created. Where an original title existed, it has been written in quotation marks. Where it was possible to identify research materials pertaining to a specific work, these remain with related records in the Works series. However, most research materials, especially those relating to Australia, New Zealand, and the southwest Pacific, have been included in the Research Materials series. Most research materials used in the writing of magazine or newspaper articles may also be found under Research, although some are included with the typescript of the article in the Works series. Correspondence which was originally maintained separately comprises the Correspondence series, but a considerable amount of correspondence is scattered throughout the Works and Research Materials series, especially if it relates to a particular publication or topic. Miscellaneous articles, notes, reviews, and other material may be found at the end of the Correspondence series. Response to Works contains published reviews and commentaries, while personal reactions to Grattan's works are found in the Correspondence series.
The records span six decades from the mid-1920s to the mid-1970s, however the bulk of material covers the period from around 1930 to the mid-1960s when Grattan worked as a free-lance writer. Because the collection contains a large amount of research materials and correspondence, it has great informational value beyond its significance as a record of Grattan's literary and academic careers. The Correspondence, Works, and Research Materials series provide the greatest potential for research on a variety of subjects, particularly Australia, New Zealand, and islands of the southwest Pacific, and Antarctica. Also of interest is material on Dr. Herbert Vere Evatt, a judge on the High Court of Australia, who later became the first president of the United Nations General Assembly. Other subjects covered include the British Commonwealth, World War II and its aftermath, adult education, and literary figures. The Correspondence series contains letters from a wide range of correspondents, mainly Australian and American. Significant Australian correspondents include Miles Franklin, Nettie Palmer, Alice Henry, Katherine Susannah Pritchard, H. V. Evatt, Brian Fitzpatrick, John J. Crawford, and Lloyd Ross. There are quantities of letters from American correspondents Harry Elmer Barnes, Allan Nevins, and George H. Nadel.
Drafts of some of Grattan's early books, Why We Fought, Bitter Bierce, The Three Jameses, and The Deadly Parallel, are not present in the collection, although research materials and correspondence relating to some of these works may be found in the Works series. Drafts of Introducing Australia, Grattan's first major publication on Australia, are also not present. The collection contains only a small amount of material relating to Grattan's academic and curatorial activities at the University of Texas at Austin between 1954 and 1974. Copies of course outlines, reading lists, and lecture notes are not present. Passports, a marriage certificate, diplomas, and other personal items are included in the Personal Materials series.
In addition to the seven main series of materials are small amounts of material listed as Works by Others, Unfiled, Unprocessed, Duplicates, Vertical Files, and Index Card Boxes.
Series I. Correspondence, 1923-1980 Grattan correspondence is arranged in four subseries: A. Outgoing, 1923-1971; B. Incoming, 1924-1980; C. Circular Letter, 1940-1941; and D. Miscellaneous, 1958-1969, undated. Correspondents include authors, historians, political figures, book dealers, periodicals, publishers, government agencies, educators and universities. Notable among them are Grattan’s mentor, Harry Elmer Barnes, and H. L. Mencken. Also present is family correspondence and some third-party correspondence. Where possible, enclosures such as reports or clippings are included. However, many were separated prior to cataloging and manuscript materials were moved to the Works series.
Correspondence in the Outgoing subseries reflects variety of topics, such as employment, publications, the sale of his collections, and travels to Australia and meeting Australians. Included is extensive correspondence with his then future wife Marjorie Campbell, circa 1923-1936, as well as 1939-1968, after their marriage. Also present are letters dating from his third Australian trip in 1940. These include carbons and drafts of letters which are included in the index of correspondents at the end of the finding aid.
Incoming correspondence comprises the bulk of the series and is in alphabetical order by folder heading--usually the name of the correspondent.
Of note is the third subseries containing responses to two circular letters Grattan wrote in 1940 and 1941 regarding Australia and New Zealand.
An index of correspondents is located at the end of the finding aid.
Series II. Works, 1924-1978 This series spans six decades, from one of Grattan's earliest articles published in 1924 to his contribution to a work on Australia and the Pacific published in 1978. It includes eight subseries: Books, Articles, Book Reviews, Lectures and Speeches, Broadcast Talks, Miscellaneous Published, Unpublished or Proposed Works, and Unidentifed Works.
The Books subseries contains the most material and is arranged to reflect Grattan's activities as author, contributor to, or editor of the represented works. Under the "Author" heading are some research materials and correspondence relating to three of Grattan's early books, Bitter Bierce (1929), The Three Jameses (1932), and The Deadly Parallel (1939). Following the research materials and drafts of In Quest of Knowledge (1955) are records relating to some of Grattan's other published works and projects in association with The Fund for Adult Education between 1956 and 1959, in particular Ageing in the Modern World, Project in Education for Leadership, and Continuing Education for Adults in the State of New York. The bulk of the material in this subseries consists of drafts for the major two-volume history, The Southwest Pacific to 1900 and The Southwest Pacific Since 1900. The draft chapters were originally numbered in sequence from Chapter 1 to Chapter 38, but when the work was split into two volumes Chapters 25 to 38 were renumbered as Chapters 1 to 15 in the second volume. Chapter numbers appear as Roman numerals on some of the renumbered drafts and in the published book. There are multiple versions of some chapters but only single versions of others. In addition to the drafts of each chapter, a complete typescript version of both volumes is also present, as are the galley proofs.
Under the "Contributor" heading are essays which Grattan contributed to a variety of books, including encyclopedias. Of note here are essays on Harry Elmer Barnes for a testimonial volume which was published in 1968, and an essay on the southwest Pacific since the end of World War I. This latter piece was included in a collection of essays, and was originally conceived at the time of Grattan's retirement in 1974 but was not published until 1978. Also present is a biographical sketch of Tom Collins, which appeared in Such Is Life by Tom Collins (Joseph Furphy) when it was published by the University of Chicago Press in 1948. Production files for Australia (1947), which was edited by Grattan as part of a United Nations series, may be found under the "Editor" heading. The files contain draft contents, emended outlines specifying chapters and contributors, general editorial guidelines, reports of writing progress, detailed editorial briefs for each chapter, and biographies of contributors. Grattan was also the general editor for a series of reprints of works in Pacific history published by Praeger. In addition to his editorial duties, he wrote an introduction to each selected work and drafts of these introductions are included.
The Articles subseries contains typescripts of published and unpublished articles. Correspondence and research materials are included with the typescripts of "The Cost of World War II,""James T. Farrell: Moralist," and "The Curious Story of John Brown Williams of Salem, Massachusetts." Some of the typescript articles in this subseries appear in published form as well, but the majority do not. Copies of many of Grattan's articles published in magazines and newspapers from 1924 to the early 1960s are present and cover a wide range of topics. "Libraries: A Necessity for Democracy" (1938), written by Grattan for the New South Wales Free Library Movement is included with the published articles. An index of Grattan’s published articles is located at the end of the finding aid.
Typescripts of published book reviews include Grattan's reviews of Patrick White's Voss, The Joyful Condemned by Kylie Tennant, and The Story of Australia by A. G. L. Shaw. Also included in the Book Reviews subseries are copies of many of his published reviews from 1924 to 1964, with two scrapbooks covering the years 1924 to 1935. Many of the early reviews are of American literature, however Grattan reviewed widely in many fields over this period.
Under Lectures and Speeches are a number of untitled typescripts which have been listed by their subject matter. Of interest are lectures Grattan gave in Australia between 1937 and 1938, particularly a lecture given at the Hawkesbury Agricultural College in July 1937 entitled "Is the Farmer Doomed?" which created a furor amongst the agricultural community. "Salute to the Professors," given to the American Historical Association in 1939, is also included, as is information on Grattan's 1960 lecture series in Australia.
Broadcast Talks contains typescripts of talks broadcast over Sydney radio stations during Grattan's second visit from 1936-38. There is also a copy of a talk on Fiji, broadcast on Fiji radio in 1960 while Grattan was en route to Australia.
Unpublished Works contains material relating to two books which Grattan proposed to write and have published. Although neither work was completed or ever published, records included here show the early phases of planning and writing. Australia, An Anthology was a project which Grattan pursued over a number of years. The book was to be an anthology of Australian writings on literature, political, economics, history, and law. Correspondence (1942) included in this subseries documents Grattan soliciting suggestions on what should be included in the anthology. Escape from Botany Bay was proposed as a retelling of the famous escape of the Bryants and their party from Botany Bay, the site of the main convict settlement in Australia, in 1791. Outlines of the proposed book are included.
There are no published bibliographies of Grattan’s works, but two helpful resources are Jack Healy's manuscript of a Grattan bibliography, covering the years 1922 to 1966, and Grattan's annual reports of his publications as a faculty member at UT, covering the years 1965 to 1971.
Series III. Response to Works, 1929-1968 (bulk 1929-32, 1955-67) Critical response to a number of Grattan's books and one major article is documented through reviews and commentaries published between 1929 and 1967. A scrapbook covering the years 1929 to 1932 contains published reviews of his early works. Included are reviews of The Peerless Leader, Why We Fought, The Critique of Humanism, and The Three Jameses published in the American press. In addition there are Australian reviews of Australian literature, and a review of A Bookman's Day Book by Nettie Palmer.
American reviews of Grattan's In Quest of Knowledge and Australian reviews of The United States and the Southwest Pacific are also present. The bulk of material in this series consists of numerous reviews of The Southwest Pacific to 1900 and The Southwest Pacific Since 1900 published in the United States, Australia, New Zealand, Britain, Canada, and other countries between 1963 and 1968.
Reviews of Grattan's article "What the War Cost", which was published in Harper's magazine in April 1949, are included, as are miscellaneous reviews from 1932 to 1951.
Responses to articles by Grattan by various readers are also located in the Series I. Correspondence files for specific publications.
Series IV. Research Materials, 1941-1975, undated Grattan’s research materials focus largely on Australia and other south pacific locations, but include materials related to countries around the world. The materials date from the early 1940s to mid-1970s, with the bulk focused on the period from the 1920s through the 1940s, and World War II specifically. Included are notes and notebooks, clippings, bibliographies and book dealers’ catalogs.
Series V. Academic and Curatorial Activities, 1965-1974 Class rosters, student grade lists, typescript papers submitted by students, correspondence and administrative records, and material relating to the Grattan Collection of Southwest Pacificana represent Grattan's activities at the University of Texas at Austin between 1965 and 1974. The series includes two subseries: Academic Activities and Curatorial Activities. The bulk of the material is included under the first subseries. Grattan taught a number of courses on history and American literature during this period. Administrative and student records relating to such courses as "The British Empire since 1783,""Americans and War,""The Southwest Pacific,""The James Family," and "The Adams Family" are present.
Curatorial Activities materials include book orders, notes on magazine files and correspondence to university officials regarding the development and funding of the Collection. There is also material on the three lecture series given by Sir Robert Menzies, former Prime Minister of Australia, who retired in 1966, when he visited the University of Texas at Austin between November 18 and 25, 1969. Grattan was called upon to introduce Menzies at the lectures.
Series VI. Personal Papers, circa 1920-1977 Grattan’s personal papers include biographical and family information, personal academic records, photographs, financial and legal documents and records of his numerous awards, honors, and organizational memberships. The materials are in alphabetical order by folder heading.
Series VII. Book Withdrawals, undated This series contains manuscript materials removed from Grattan books transferred to the Ransom Center’s library. They are filed in the Library of Congress call number order of the books from which they were removed.

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