Scope and Contents
|Typed and handwritten manuscripts, interview notes, galley proofs, financial records,
correspondence, audio and video tapes, clippings, research files, court documents,
government publications, photographs, and memorabilia document the Watergate
investigation and writings of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. Reflected in these
materials is their work at the Washington Post, on
their two jointly written books All the President's
Men (1974) and The Final Days (1976), as well
as the motion picture version of All the President's
Men (1976), and for Woodward's book Shadow: Five
Presidents and the Legacy of Watergate (1999).
| The papers are organized in two series: I. Woodward, 1970-2001 (bulk 1972-1976) and
II. Bernstein, 1964-1996 (bulk 1972-1976). The two series reflect who possessed
records at the time they were transferred to the Ransom Center. They do not indicate
the creator of the materials within each series. The manner in which most of the
materials were created and accumulated was highly interactive and there was much
mixing and overlap of materials between the two reporters. Items created by or
to Woodward are found throughout the Bernstein series and vice-versa.
| Each series is further organized into subseries reflecting the manner in which
Woodward and Bernstein each maintained their own files:
- I. Woodward, 1970-2001 (bulk 1972-1976)
- A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, 1972-1977 (4 boxes)
- B. The Final Days, 1972-1976, 1989 (27
- C. Shadow, 1989, 1997-2001 (3 boxes)
- D. Clippings, 1973-1976, 1982 (2 boxes)
- E. Personal, 1970-1999 (part of 1 box)
- F. Works by Others, 1976, undated (2 boxes)
- II. Bernstein, 1964-1996 (bulk 1972-1976)
- A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, 1964, 1972- 1977
- B. The Final Days, 1972-1976 (13 boxes)
- C. Correspondence, 1973-1976 (5 boxes)
- D. Clippings and Videos, 1972-1979, 1996 (5 boxes)
| Two subseries, A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, and B. The Final Days, are found in both the Bernstein and Woodward series and
contain similar materials. The major differences between them are that the Bernstein
materials contain all manuscript drafts for All the
President's Men, and the Woodward materials contain the majority of
research documents and manuscript drafts for The Final
| Other differences between the Woodward series and the Bernstein series include the
presence in Woodward's papers of materials for his book Shadow, and copies or drafts of several works by other authors.
| The Personal subseries in Woodward's papers is the smallest of the subseries and
contains materials somewhat similar to the memorabilia files in Bernstein's Washington Post and All the
President's Men subseries. Correspondence and clippings are present in
both series, but the majority of these are found in Bernstein's papers. Incoming
correspondence, notes, and memos, excluding routine fan mail, are indexed at the
of the finding aid. Included among the correspondents are Ben Bradlee, Tom Brokaw,
William F. Buckley, Joseph Califano, Katharine Graham, Alice Mayhew, and Dan Rather.
| The bulk of the collection consists of drafts of Washington
Post news stories, All the President's
Men, and The Final Days. Woodward and
Bernstein typed all of these drafts on the six-ply carbonless paper used by the
Washington Post at that time for news copy
drafts. The paper is specially coated to transmit typed or written marks from
top sheet to underlying sheets without the use of traditional carbon paper. By
this paper, Woodward and Bernstein created five copies of every typed page. One
all six pages may contain handwritten comments and changes by Bernstein, Woodward,
their editors, and, on manuscripts for The Final
Days, from research assistants Scott Armstrong and Al Kamen. This process
created numerous versions of each section of every draft. Some of the drafts retain
all six sheets of paper still joined at a perforated edge. Others have only the
typed sheet, or one or more of the copy sheets. Care must be taken when using
the sheets as inadvertent marks can still be transferred onto underlying layers.
Many of the copies are faded; preservation photocopies have been made. Some are
faded that they cannot be read or reproduced by photocopying. In these cases the
sheets were digitally scanned and printouts made after adjusting the contrast
best reveal the image.
| Many of the book drafts were received at the Ransom Center loose in boxes without
folders. Some effort was made during cataloging to place the unidentified
manuscripts with those received in folders and identified by writer, draft version,
editing stage, chapter order, or other labeling. Throughout the collection, copies
of original file folders and headings have been retained with the materials.
| In addition to the wealth of manuscript material, of great importance are hundreds
of files containing interviews conducted by telephone or in person by Bernstein
Woodward for their news stories and books. Found in both the Woodward and Bernstein
series, the files include interviews with major Watergate figures, presidential
aides and staff, government officials and employees, congressmen, and Nixon
colleagues. Examples of some of the higher profile interviewees are Howard Baker,
Fred Buzhardt, John Ehrlichman, James St. Clair, Barry Goldwater, Howard Hunt,
Elliot Richardson, and Leon Jaworski.
| The contents of the interview files vary greatly. Some contain a single page of
handwritten notes. Others hold numerous typed pages from multiple interviews.
include audio tapes of the interview and background material on the subject. Most
files contain material from a single source, but some contain information from
multiple sources regarding a particular topic or person. With the exception of
interviews conducted for Woodward's book Shadow, all
of the interviews were conducted with the promise of complete confidentiality
therefore remain closed for research until the death of the interview source.
file contains interviews from several sources, the entire file will remain closed
until all sources are deceased.
| The bulk of the materials dates from 1972 to 1976. A small number of clippings and
other items from the late 1960s predate Woodward and Bernstein's work together.
research materials, clippings, and papers related to Shadow date from the 1980s through 2001. Materials are in English, with a
small number of French, German, and Spanish language clippings and one French
language videotape. All videotape, audiotape, and film has been transferred to
Ransom Center's audio/visual (AV) collection and digital copies are available
research use. A list of these AV materials is provided in the Associated Materials
section of this finding aid. Foreign and special editions of All the President's Men and The Final
Days have likewise been transferred to the Ransom Center's library and are
cataloged separately. These books are also listed under Associated Materials.
|Series I. Woodward, 1970-2001 (bulk 1972-1976) (38 boxes)
|Subseries A. The Washington Post
and All the President's Men, 1972-1977 (4
|This subseries contains some of the earliest materials from Woodward and
Bernstein's Watergate Papers, much of it used for both their Washington Post reporting and the writing of
All the President's Men.
| The bulk of the subseries consists of source files and subject files
containing interviews and research conducted by Woodward and Bernstein.
Although the contents of the source files and the subject files are
often similar, maintaining the distinction between them reflects
Woodward's working methods. Source files most often contain notes from
interviews conducted while writing stories for the Post. Subject files tend to be larger and
more often contain information about a topic or individual rather than
material from that individual. Both groups of files are arranged
alphabetically. Of note are Woodward's handwritten notes from the
arraignment of the Watergate burglars the day after the break-in and
notes from his contacts with Mark Felt. Many of the files remain closed
in accordance with Woodward and Bernstein's promises to protect their
| Also included with Washington Post
materials are several Watergate related publications issued by the
Post, clippings of stories by
Woodward and Bernstein, clippings of Watergate stories from other papers
and reporters, and photo reproductions of front page Washington Post Watergate stories.
| Woodward's All the President's Men
materials contain contracts, outlines, editing notes, and page proofs
for the book. Also present are financial records, such as royalty
statements and expense accounts, dating from 1973 to 1977. These
materials cover the period during which Woodward and Bernstein were
writing All the President's Men and
The Final Days, and include personal
financial information for both reporters. Manuscript drafts for the book
are located with Bernstein's materials.
| The All the President's Men movie
materials contain Woodward's notes on discussions with Robert Redford
and several screenplay drafts annotated by Woodward and Bernstein.
Publicity materials for the movie include a 35mm film trailer and French
language videotape of the film.
|Subseries B. The Final Days,
1972-1976, 1989 (27 boxes)
|The Final Days subseries contains
extensive source files, research materials, and manuscript drafts from
Woodward, Bernstein, and their research assistants Scott Armstrong and
Al Kaman. As in files for All the President's
Men, The Final Days source files
contain interview notes and background information, and some of the
files remain closed for research. Many of the files contain handwritten
interview notes and typed summaries made from the notes. Some files
include audio tapes of the interview. The interviews were conducted by
Woodward, Bernstein, Armstrong, or Kaman individually, or by two or more
of them together. Some interviews took place over the telephone. Others
were quite extensive and took several meetings to complete.
| Woodward's research materials for The Final
Days include copies of Senate and House Committee proceedings,
many with Woodward and Armstrong's annotations. Also included are copies
of court documents from Watergate related proceedings, press releases
from the White House, Congress, the Watergate Special Prosecution Force,
and The Committee to Re-elect the President, published compilations of
presidential documents, and photocopies of presidential phone logs and
| Several boxes of material trace the coverage of Watergate by the
national media. These files contain clippings and articles from
journalists such as Lou Cannon, William Safire, and David Wise, and
magazines such as Time and Newsweek. Other files, created by Al Kaman,
contain typed chronologies of Watergate news coverage.
| Typed, carbon copy, and photocopied manuscripts for the book include
early and intermediate drafts. Some drafts are identified as Woodward's
working copies and some as Bernstein's working copies; others are not
identified as either Woodward's or Bernstein's. As with All the President's Men, the drafts were
typed on six-layered carbon paper, creating numerous copies of each
draft. Many contain handwritten corrections or notes from the authors,
their assistants, or their editor at Simon and Schuster, Alice Mayhew.
As drafts moved back and forth between the parties, sections became
separated or mixed and portions of one draft may be split between
Woodward's files and Bernstein's files.
|The Final Days was written in two parts
covering "22 areas of inquiry" as stated in the authors' foreword. Part
I contained 20 chapters examining various periods, events, and
individuals from April 1973 to July 1974. Part II covered the period of
July 24 to August 9. As published, the chapters in Part I were untitled,
but Woodward and Bernstein used topical headings for each section as
they worked. As sections of the book developed and text was moved from
one draft to the next, headings changed or overlapped. Drafts for Part I
of the book are labeled with their original working headings in the
container list. They are roughly in the order that arrived at the Ransom
Center and do not exactly correspond to the final arrangement of the
chapters in the published book. Drafts for Part II of the book are
headed by date and are in chronological order as in Part II of the
| Other materials include photographs used in the book, galley proofs with
Woodward's handwritten corrections, copies of the book's Newsweek excerpts, and a first edition copy
of the book with text marked by Woodward.
| Also in the subseries are photocopies and notes related to Woodward's
research on Nixon and Mark Felt in the 1980s and 1990s.
|Subseries C. Shadow, 1989,
1997-2001 (3 boxes)
|Subseries C. contains materials related to the first chapter of
Woodward's 1999 book Shadow: Five Presidents and
the Legacy of Watergate. The chapter focused on Gerald
Ford's pardon of Nixon is represented by transcriptions of taped
interviews that Woodward conducted with Gerald Ford and individuals who
served under Ford or Nixon. Unlike the interviews for All the President's Men and The Final Days, these interviews were
conducted on the record and all files are open for research. Included
are interviews with high-level Nixon and Ford officials such as James
Schlesinger and Alexander Haig. Also present are photocopies of
presidential papers from the Ford Library and the National Archives,
research notes and outlines, clippings of news stories about the pardon,
and computer printout drafts of the chapter.
| The small amount of correspondence includes a photocopy of a letter from
Ford to Woodward expressing appreciation for the book, and a letter from
Frank Fox accompanying several articles by Fox on Ford and Nixon. Notes
and comments from Woodward's research assistant Jeff Glasser are found
throughout the materials.
| In addition to the Shadow materials are
items related to a Ford article written by Woodward soon after finishing
Shadow. Created for a book on the
winners of the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation's Profile in Courage
Award, the piece is documented with one folder of computer printout
drafts, correspondence, and publicity materials for the Kennedy Library
and the award.
|Subseries D. Clippings, 1973-1976, 1982 (2 boxes)
|The Clippings subseries contains reviews, editorials, and articles from
newspapers, magazines, and wire services. They are grouped topically for
All the President's Men (book),
All the President's Men (movie), and
The Final Days. There is also a
grouping for "1976" which contains clippings on both the movie and
The Final Days, and a grouping of
interviews and stories about Woodward and Bernstein in general.
| Most of the clippings are from the United States with a small number
related to The Final Days from the United
Kingdom. The materials are very similar to those in the Clippings
subseries in the Bernstein series, but are not as extensive.
|Subseries E. Personal, 1970-1999 (.5 box)
|Woodward's personal materials contain mementos of his Watergate reporting
for the Washington Post and books he
co-authored with Bernstein. The bulk of the materials date from 1970 to
1976, with a few items dating as late as 1999.
| Two folders of handwritten and typed speech notes form the bulk of the
subseries. Accompanying these notes are photographs and programs from
various speeches and appearances, including photos from a 1976 Meet the Press television broadcast
featuring Woodward and Bernstein. Other items include letters in
response to applications Woodward submitted at the Washington Post and the New York Times in the early 1970s, press
badges from 1974 to 1981, and personal letters from friends and
colleagues. Notable among these are letters from Dan Rather, Judge John
Sirica, and a 1974 three page letter addressed to "Bob and Carl" from
Katharine Graham praising their efforts and achievements over the
previous two years.
| Also found in the Personal material is biographical information for
Woodward and others at the Washington
|Subseries F. Works by Others, 1976, undated (2 boxes)
|The Works by Others subseries contains drafts or copies of Watergate
related monographs sent to or copied by Woodward. The bulk consists of
two manuscript drafts of James Doyle's Not Above
the Law (1976) sent by Doyle for Woodward's review. Philadelphia Inquirer editorial cartoonist
Tony Auth also sought Woodward's input for his book Behind the Lines (1977), sending copies of
cartoons he planned to use.
| Photocopied outlines and drafts for Charles Colson's Born Again (1976) and H. R. Haldeman's
The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White
House (1994) were sent to Woodward by publishers or agents.
An incomplete photocopy of Haldeman's book The
Ends of Power (1978) contains Woodward's handwritten
comments and notes.
|Series II. Bernstein, 1964-1996 (bulk 1972-1976) (36
|Subseries A. The Washington Post
and All the President's Men, 1964,
1972-1977 (12 boxes)
|This subseries contains source files and subject files similar to those
in Woodward's Washington Post and All the President's Men materials, and like
Woodward's, many of the files remain closed for research to protect the
confidentiality of the sources. Files open for research include
interviews notes with Howard Baker and John Ehrlichman and copies of
telephone records for Howard Hunt and Bernard Barker. Bernstein's Washington Post clippings are more extensive
than Woodward's and include a 1968 story by Bernstein. In addition,
Bernstein's materials include typed and carbon drafts of some of his
Post stories written with Woodward
and a typed memo from Bernstein to Washington
Post national editor Dick Harwood criticizing a Post Watergate story and detailing how
Bernstein believed Watergate coverage should be pursued.
| The creation of All the President's Men
is well documented with multiple copies of heavily annotated typescripts
and carbon drafts, including fragments of two early versions focusing on
the burglars. Included are galley proofs with Bernstein's handwritten
corrections, and materials relating to excerpts of the book that
appeared in Playboy.
| Other papers related to the book include Simon and Schuster promotional
materials and memorabilia sent to or collected by Bernstein such as
brochures and pamphlets from speaking engagements, anti-Nixon bumper
stickers and cartoons, and letters sent to Bernstein's father, Al
Bernstein, commenting on Carl's achievements.
| Documents related to the movie version of All the
President's Men include screenplay typescripts, shooting
schedules, promotional material, and a letter to Robert Redford from
Bernstein and Woodward outlining their thoughts on the film and
recommendations for minor changes.
|Subseries B. The Final Days,
1972-1976 (13 boxes)
|Bernstein's Final Days papers contain
early drafts similar to those in the Woodward Final Days subseries, although in lesser amounts. The early
drafts include working files from both Bernstein and Woodward, with many
of Woodward's files containing extensive input from research assistant
Scott Armstrong. One file included the notation "Woodward rewrite of
Armstrong rewrite of Woodward original." As with their other
manuscripts, Bernstein and Woodward's comments are found throughout each
| Arrangement of this subseries is the same as in Woodward's, with
topically headed drafts of sections used in Part I of the book followed
by chronologically arranged sections used in Part II. None of
Bernstein's Final Days source files are
currently open for research. Research materials consist of one typed
chronology of Watergate news stories similar to those located in the
Woodward Final Days subseries
| Unique to Bernstein's subseries are heavily edited photocopies of
intermediate drafts and a copy-edited final draft. Also specific to
Bernstein's files are his extensive handwritten preliminary notes,
outlines, and comments on the book's development, as well as several
drafts of acknowledgements, forewords, and other front matter used in
| Other materials include galley proofs with Bernstein's corrections,
copies of the Newsweek book excerpts, and
a small amount of correspondence mostly related to reviews and sales
|Subseries C. Correspondence, 1973-1976 (5 boxes)
|The Correspondence subseries contains letters sent to Woodward and
Bernstein at the Washington Post from
1973 to 1976. The bulk of the material is fan mail consisting of
requests for photographs or autographs, invitations to speak to groups
or attend functions, and suggestions of potential stories in need of
investigation. Included are letters praising their work at the Post, their books, and their movie, as well
as letters critical of their works, particularly The Final Days.
| In addition to the fan mail are letters and telegrams from coworkers and
fellow journalists such as Tom Brokaw. Also of note is a copy of the
agreement between Bernstein, Woodward, and the Washington Post for the writing of The Final Days.
| Woodward and Bernstein were assisted with their correspondence by Laura
Quirk. A Post employee, Quirk gathered
the letters in batches and sent them to either Woodward or Bernstein,
who then forwarded the correspondence to the other after review. This
system caused a great deal of overlap in dates among the files,
particularly during 1976 when they received a large amount of mail in
response to the release of The Final Days
and the movie All the President's Men.
| There are numerous notes and comments written between Woodward,
Bernstein, and Quirk at the tops of letters and on the file folders
containing them, including drafts of replies. Several folders of mail
dating from 1974 to 1976 include carbons of typed responses along with
the incoming letters, but the bulk of the correspondence files contain
incoming letters only. The folders of correspondence were received at
the Ransom Center in no particular order. During processing they were
grouped according to notations written by Quirk on the front of the file
folders: "General," "Carl," "Done," and "File." Letters are in rough
chronological order within these headings.
| Other correspondence is located with Bernstein's All the President's Men memorabilia, Woodward's personal
materials, and with promotional materials and clippings for both their
books and the movie. All incoming correspondence, other than routine fan
mail, is indexed at the end of the finding aid. Included in the index
are notes and memos from Washington Post
and Simon and Schuster personnel.
|Subseries D. Clippings and Videos, 1972-1979, 1996 (5
|The Clippings and Videos subseries consists primarily of reviews and
commentary on the book and movie versions of All
the President's Men and on The Final
Days. Sources include newspapers, magazines, press releases,
publishers' catalogs, and printed advertisements. Many of the clippings
were collected by Simon and Schuster or clipping services and include
material from the United Kingdom, France, and a small number of Spanish
and German language clippings. Some of the clippings sent by individuals
include letters or written commentary. Clippings related to The Final Days document the strong criticism
directed at Bernstein and Woodward concerning their methods and motives.
Of note is a press release from Nixon friend and supporter Rabbi Baruch
Korff detailing Korff's assessment of numerous errors and false claims in
The Final Days. Bernstein's
handwritten comments on the release refute or explain each of Korff's
| Clippings under the heading "Bernstein and Woodward/Journalism" include
articles on the two reporters, coverage of their speeches and
appearances, and stories on journalism in general. Included is a
scrapbook created by Bernstein's mother and a typed carbon draft of a
Washington Post story by Robert
Kaiser on Bernstein leaving the Post.
Several articles document Bernstein's activities after his departure,
including one dated 1992. Also included is a 1973 Quill article written by Bernstein that details how he and
Woodward pursued the Watergate story.
| Materials under "Nixon/Watergate" include numerous magazine articles as
well as videotapes of a 1987 ABC News program and a 1992 CBS News
program. Similar clippings are located in the Clippings subseries of
Woodward's papers, but in lesser amounts.