University of Texas at Austin

Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein:

An Inventory of Their Watergate Papers at the Harry Ransom Center

Creator: Woodward, Bob (1943- ) and Bernstein, Carl (1944- )
Title: Watergate Papers
Dates: 1964-2001 (bulk 1972-1976)
Extent: 77 boxes (32.34 linear feet), 6 oversize boxes, 3 oversize folders, 3 galley folders, 21 bound volumes
Abstract: Typed and handwritten manuscripts, interview notes, galley proofs, financial records, correspondence, audio and video tapes, clippings, research files, court documents, government publications, photographs, and memorabilia document the Watergate investigation and writings of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. The bulk of the collection consists of drafts of Washington Post news stories, All The President's Men, and The Final Days.
Call Number: Manuscript Collection MS-04916
Call Number: Manuscript Collection MS-04916
Language: English, French, German, and Spanish
Access: Confidential interview files remain closed until the death of the interviewee or release by Woodward and Bernstein. All other files are open for research.


Administrative Information


Acquisition: Purchase, 2003
Processed by: Stephen Mielke, 2003-2011
Repository:

Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin

Biographical Sketch


On June 18, 1972, a Washington Post front page story reported the previous day's break-in at the Democratic National Committee's office in the Watergate complex in Washington, DC. Five men were arrested while attempting to photograph documents and place bugging devices in the offices. The White House dismissed the crime as a "third-rate burglary," and much of the nation's media soon dropped interest in what some jokingly referred to as "the Watergate caper." But two of the reporters who worked on that first Washington Post story, Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, continued tracking down sources and pursuing leads on what became the biggest story of twentieth-century American politics.
Robert Woodward, born March 26, 1943, in Geneva, Illinois, was raised in nearby Wheaton. The son of a Republican lawyer and judge, Woodward attended Yale University on an ROTC scholarship, graduating with a BA in History and English in 1965. He then served as a communications officer in the US Navy from 1965 to 1970. After leaving the service, he contemplated attending law school, but then decided to seek reporting jobs with the Washington Post or the New York Times. Turned down for a lack of experience, he spent a year as a reporter for the Montgomery County Sentinel in Maryland before getting a position at the Washington Post in 1971. At the time of the Watergate break-in, Woodward had been at the Post less than nine months and had worked as a reporter for less than two years.
Carl Bernstein was born February 14, 1944, in Washington, DC, and raised in nearby Silver Spring, Maryland. His parents were social activists and members of the American Communist Party. He began working as a copy boy at the Washington Evening Star at age sixteen, and after finishing high school attended classes part-time at the University of Maryland. He eventually began contributing stories at the Star and in 1965 moved to New York City to work as a reporter at the Elizabeth Daily Journal in New Jersey. After one year at the Journal, Bernstein returned to Washington, DC, and took a reporter position at the Washington Post.
At first the two reporters worked independently of one another. Woodward discovered that one of the burglars, James McCord, Jr., was a former CIA employee, recently employed as a security coordinator for the Committee for the Re-election of President Nixon (CRP). He also tracked a phone number in one burglar's address book to White House consultant Howard Hunt. Bernstein was able to confirm the burglar's calls to Hunt through telephone records, and also traced a check in one burglar's bank account to the CRP. With support and guidance from Post editors Barry Sussman, Harry Rosenfeld, Howard Simons, and executive editor Ben Bradlee, Woodward and Bernstein combined their efforts to further explain the break-in, seeking information from hundreds of administration officials, campaign workers, White House staffers, and other sources.
For several months, Woodward and Bernstein continually wrote front page stories exposing links between Watergate and the CRP, but were unable to directly connect the burglars to anyone close to Nixon. One of Woodward's sources, identified on May 31, 2005, as FBI Associate Director Mark Felt, provided deep background information, on the condition that Woodward never identify, quote, or use him as a sole source of the information. Deep Throat, as Felt was labeled by Howard Simons, confirmed the reporters' suspicions and leads, and helped focus their investigation on the trail of money from the burglars to the CRP to the White House. Eventually, in an October 10, 1972 story, Woodward and Bernstein were able to disclose in detail that the Watergate break-in was part of a larger effort to sabotage Nixon's political opponents--paid for through the CRP under the direction of some of Nixon's closest aides.
White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler reacted with strong criticism to the story, questioning the methods and political motivations of the Washington Post and the two reporters. After Nixon's re-election in November 1972, many thought the story would die, but instead, repercussions from the break-in continued. In January 1973, the five Watergate burglars and two former White House employees who directed them, Howard Hunt and G. Gordon Liddy, were convicted for the break-in. In February, the U.S. Senate formed a committee to investigate the Nixon campaign. And in March, Watergate burglar James McCord, Jr. informed Judge John Sirica that he and the other burglars had lied during their trials, were pressured by the White House to withhold information, and that high-ranking officials had known about the Watergate break-in plan.
By April 1973, the Post, numerous other news agencies, and the Senate committee were all focused on discovering what knowledge, if any, Nixon had of the Watergate burglary. On April 30, due to the mounting evidence of their personal involvement, Nixon's Chief of Staff H. R. Haldeman, Domestic Affairs Advisor John Ehrlichman, and Attorney General Richard Kleindienst all resigned and Presidential Counsel John Dean was fired. At a press conference the following day, Press Secretary Ziegler apologized to Woodward, Bernstein, and the Washington Post for his previous criticism, admitting to the validity of their stories.
In May 1973, the Washington Post received the Pulitzer Prize for Woodward and Bernstein's Watergate coverage. Interest in what the two reporters had accomplished was growing, and a book offer from Simon and Schuster had already been made. Originally planning to write a story from the burglars' perspective, Woodward and Bernstein decided instead to tell the story of their investigation of the break-in and the cover-up. While still covering the ongoing Watergate story for the Post, they worked on the book nights and weekends, eventually taking a five-week leave of absence to write full time.
Published in June 1974, All the President's Men was a best-seller, receiving strong reviews and extensive media coverage. The book revealed the existence of "Deep Throat," causing great speculation about his identity, particularly since the Watergate story continued to unfold after the book was published. In July 1973, the Senate investigating committee had uncovered the existence of the taping system used by Nixon to record meetings in the Oval Office. In February 1974, the House Judiciary Committee began impeachment hearings. And one month before All the President's Men was released, a federal grand jury indicted seven of Nixon's top aides in the Watergate cover-up and informed the judge that there was enough evidence to indict Nixon, but they did not have the legal authority to charge the President.
After the release of All the President's Men, Woodward and Bernstein continued covering Watergate for the Post and began making plans for a follow-up book. Soon after Nixon's resignation on August 9, 1974, they took another leave of absence to work on what became The Final Days. Focusing on Nixon and the inner workings at the White House over the last 100 days of his administration, Woodward and Bernstein found that with Nixon out of office, many high-level White House and government personnel were willing and eager to talk to them and explain their side of the story. They hired two research assistants, Scott Armstrong and Al Kamen, and proceeded to interview nearly 400 people, promising them complete anonymity since many still worked in government or had continuing connections to Nixon or other politicians.
As they worked on the new book, production began on a movie version of All the President's Men starring Robert Redford as Woodward and Dustin Hoffman as Bernstein. The actors and director Alan Pakula relied heavily upon the two reporters for their opinions and insight on the film's content and authenticity. Opening in April 1976, the film was greatly successful and later won four Academy Awards, including best screenplay adaptation for William Goldman.
The same month the movie opened, pre-publication excerpts from The Final Days were released in Newsweek. Strong reactions to the excerpts, which included details about Nixon's personal life, were often negative and highly critical of Woodward and Bernstein. Commentators pilloried the book as an invasion of privacy and an unnecessary attack on the already humiliated Nixon. Despite the criticism, the book was soon a best-seller after its release in May. By then, many reviews noted that as a whole, the book was not an attack on Nixon. Some even found it to be somewhat sympathetic towards the former President. Still, facts and events from the book were questioned by Nixon's friends and family, and some obvious sources denied ever speaking with Bernstein and Woodward. Some questioned the credibility of the work due to the lack of footnotes and named sources, even though many acknowledged that it would have been impossible to write without the promises of anonymity.
With increasing fame and notoriety, Woodward and Bernstein had themselves become the focus of numerous news stories. While often forced to defend their own work, they criticized other reporters and journalism in general for simply reporting official comments on important events without question or critical investigating. To many in America, the two reporters were heroes who stood up against power and corruption, and enrollment in journalism schools soared as students sought to follow the examples set by the two role models.
Soon after finishing The Final Days, Bernstein left the Washington Post in 1976. He contributed articles to Rolling Stone, the New Republic, and Time and worked as Washington Bureau Chief for ABC News from 1979 to 1981. From 1981 to 1984 he was a correspondent for ABC in New York, and since 1992 has been a visiting lecturer at New York University. In addition to his books with Woodward he has written Loyalties: A Son's Memoir (1989), His Holiness: John Paul II and the Hidden History of Our Time (1996) with Marco Politi, and A Woman in Charge: The Life of Hillary Rodham Clinton (2007).
Woodward continued working at The Washington Post, becoming assistant managing editor in 1981. He also continued writing and has produced numerous best-sellers. In addition to his books with Bernstein he has written The Brethren: Inside the Supreme Court (1979) with Scott Armstrong, Wired: The Short Life of and Fast Times of John Belushi (1984), Veil: The Secret Wars of the CIA, 1981-1987 (1987), The Commanders (1991), The Man Who Would be President: Dan Quayle (1992) with David Broder and Dan Quayle, The Agenda: Inside the Clinton White House (1994), The Choice (1996), Shadow: Five Presidents and the Legacy of Watergate (1999), Maestro: Greenspan's Fed and the American Boom (2000), Bush at War (2002), Plan of Attack (2004), and State of Denial (2006). He also co-wrote the television movie Under Siege (1986) and mini-series The Nightmare Years (1989) with Christian Williams.

Sources:


Bernstein, Carl, and Bob Woodward. All the President's Men. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974.
Contemporary Authors, Volume 81-84. Locher, Frances Carol, ed. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1979.
Contemporary Authors: New Revision Series, Volume 67. Jones, Daniel, and John D. Jorgenson, eds. Detroit: Gale Research Company, 1998.
Hirshberg, Jack. Portrait of All the President's Men. New York: Warner Books, 1976.

Scope and Contents


Scope and Contents

Typed and handwritten manuscripts, interview notes, galley proofs, financial records, correspondence, audio and video tapes, clippings, research files, court documents, government publications, photographs, and memorabilia document the Watergate investigation and writings of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein. Reflected in these materials is their work at the Washington Post, on their two jointly written books All the President's Men (1974) and The Final Days (1976), as well as the motion picture version of All the President's Men (1976), and for Woodward's book Shadow: Five Presidents and the Legacy of Watergate (1999).
The papers are organized in two series: I. Woodward, 1970-2001 (bulk 1972-1976) and II. Bernstein, 1964-1996 (bulk 1972-1976). The two series reflect who possessed the records at the time they were transferred to the Ransom Center. They do not indicate the creator of the materials within each series. The manner in which most of the materials were created and accumulated was highly interactive and there was much mixing and overlap of materials between the two reporters. Items created by or sent to Woodward are found throughout the Bernstein series and vice-versa.
Each series is further organized into subseries reflecting the manner in which Woodward and Bernstein each maintained their own files:
  • I. Woodward, 1970-2001 (bulk 1972-1976)
    • A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, 1972-1977 (4 boxes)
    • B. The Final Days, 1972-1976, 1989 (27 boxes)
    • C. Shadow, 1989, 1997-2001 (3 boxes)
    • D. Clippings, 1973-1976, 1982 (2 boxes)
    • E. Personal, 1970-1999 (part of 1 box)
    • F. Works by Others, 1976, undated (2 boxes)
  • II. Bernstein, 1964-1996 (bulk 1972-1976)
    • A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, 1964, 1972- 1977 (12 boxes)
    • B. The Final Days, 1972-1976 (13 boxes)
    • C. Correspondence, 1973-1976 (5 boxes)
    • D. Clippings and Videos, 1972-1979, 1996 (5 boxes)
Two subseries, A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, and B. The Final Days, are found in both the Bernstein and Woodward series and contain similar materials. The major differences between them are that the Bernstein materials contain all manuscript drafts for All the President's Men, and the Woodward materials contain the majority of research documents and manuscript drafts for The Final Days.
Other differences between the Woodward series and the Bernstein series include the presence in Woodward's papers of materials for his book Shadow, and copies or drafts of several works by other authors.
The Personal subseries in Woodward's papers is the smallest of the subseries and contains materials somewhat similar to the memorabilia files in Bernstein's Washington Post and All the President's Men subseries. Correspondence and clippings are present in both series, but the majority of these are found in Bernstein's papers. Incoming correspondence, notes, and memos, excluding routine fan mail, are indexed at the end of the finding aid. Included among the correspondents are Ben Bradlee, Tom Brokaw, William F. Buckley, Joseph Califano, Katharine Graham, Alice Mayhew, and Dan Rather.
The bulk of the collection consists of drafts of Washington Post news stories, All the President's Men, and The Final Days. Woodward and Bernstein typed all of these drafts on the six-ply carbonless paper used by the Washington Post at that time for news copy drafts. The paper is specially coated to transmit typed or written marks from the top sheet to underlying sheets without the use of traditional carbon paper. By using this paper, Woodward and Bernstein created five copies of every typed page. One or all six pages may contain handwritten comments and changes by Bernstein, Woodward, their editors, and, on manuscripts for The Final Days, from research assistants Scott Armstrong and Al Kamen. This process created numerous versions of each section of every draft. Some of the drafts retain all six sheets of paper still joined at a perforated edge. Others have only the top typed sheet, or one or more of the copy sheets. Care must be taken when using any of the sheets as inadvertent marks can still be transferred onto underlying layers. Many of the copies are faded; preservation photocopies have been made. Some are so faded that they cannot be read or reproduced by photocopying. In these cases the sheets were digitally scanned and printouts made after adjusting the contrast to best reveal the image.
Many of the book drafts were received at the Ransom Center loose in boxes without folders. Some effort was made during cataloging to place the unidentified manuscripts with those received in folders and identified by writer, draft version, editing stage, chapter order, or other labeling. Throughout the collection, copies of original file folders and headings have been retained with the materials.
In addition to the wealth of manuscript material, of great importance are hundreds of files containing interviews conducted by telephone or in person by Bernstein and Woodward for their news stories and books. Found in both the Woodward and Bernstein series, the files include interviews with major Watergate figures, presidential aides and staff, government officials and employees, congressmen, and Nixon colleagues. Examples of some of the higher profile interviewees are Howard Baker, J. Fred Buzhardt, John Ehrlichman, James St. Clair, Barry Goldwater, Howard Hunt, Elliot Richardson, and Leon Jaworski.
The contents of the interview files vary greatly. Some contain a single page of handwritten notes. Others hold numerous typed pages from multiple interviews. Some include audio tapes of the interview and background material on the subject. Most files contain material from a single source, but some contain information from multiple sources regarding a particular topic or person. With the exception of interviews conducted for Woodward's book Shadow, all of the interviews were conducted with the promise of complete confidentiality and therefore remain closed for research until the death of the interview source. When a file contains interviews from several sources, the entire file will remain closed until all sources are deceased.
The bulk of the materials dates from 1972 to 1976. A small number of clippings and other items from the late 1960s predate Woodward and Bernstein's work together. Some research materials, clippings, and papers related to Shadow date from the 1980s through 2001. Materials are in English, with a small number of French, German, and Spanish language clippings and one French language videotape. All videotape, audiotape, and film has been transferred to the Ransom Center's audio/visual (AV) collection and digital copies are available for research use. A list of these AV materials is provided in the Associated Materials section of this finding aid. Foreign and special editions of All the President's Men and The Final Days have likewise been transferred to the Ransom Center's library and are cataloged separately. These books are also listed under Associated Materials.

Series Descriptions

Series I. Woodward, 1970-2001 (bulk 1972-1976) (38 boxes)
Subseries A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, 1972-1977 (4 boxes)
This subseries contains some of the earliest materials from Woodward and Bernstein's Watergate Papers, much of it used for both their Washington Post reporting and the writing of All the President's Men.
The bulk of the subseries consists of source files and subject files containing interviews and research conducted by Woodward and Bernstein. Although the contents of the source files and the subject files are often similar, maintaining the distinction between them reflects Woodward's working methods. Source files most often contain notes from interviews conducted while writing stories for the Post. Subject files tend to be larger and more often contain information about a topic or individual rather than material from that individual. Both groups of files are arranged alphabetically. Of note are Woodward's handwritten notes from the arraignment of the Watergate burglars the day after the break-in and notes from his contacts with Mark Felt. Many of the files remain closed in accordance with Woodward and Bernstein's promises to protect their sources' identities.
Also included with Washington Post materials are several Watergate related publications issued by the Post, clippings of stories by Woodward and Bernstein, clippings of Watergate stories from other papers and reporters, and photo reproductions of front page Washington Post Watergate stories.
Woodward's All the President's Men materials contain contracts, outlines, editing notes, and page proofs for the book. Also present are financial records, such as royalty statements and expense accounts, dating from 1973 to 1977. These materials cover the period during which Woodward and Bernstein were writing All the President's Men and The Final Days, and include personal financial information for both reporters. Manuscript drafts for the book are located with Bernstein's materials.
The All the President's Men movie materials contain Woodward's notes on discussions with Robert Redford and several screenplay drafts annotated by Woodward and Bernstein. Publicity materials for the movie include a 35mm film trailer and French language videotape of the film.
Subseries B. The Final Days, 1972-1976, 1989 (27 boxes)
The Final Days subseries contains extensive source files, research materials, and manuscript drafts from Woodward, Bernstein, and their research assistants Scott Armstrong and Al Kaman. As in files for All the President's Men, The Final Days source files contain interview notes and background information, and some of the files remain closed for research. Many of the files contain handwritten interview notes and typed summaries made from the notes. Some files include audio tapes of the interview. The interviews were conducted by Woodward, Bernstein, Armstrong, or Kaman individually, or by two or more of them together. Some interviews took place over the telephone. Others were quite extensive and took several meetings to complete.
Woodward's research materials for The Final Days include copies of Senate and House Committee proceedings, many with Woodward and Armstrong's annotations. Also included are copies of court documents from Watergate related proceedings, press releases from the White House, Congress, the Watergate Special Prosecution Force, and The Committee to Re-elect the President, published compilations of presidential documents, and photocopies of presidential phone logs and diaries.
Several boxes of material trace the coverage of Watergate by the national media. These files contain clippings and articles from journalists such as Lou Cannon, William Safire, and David Wise, and magazines such as Time and Newsweek. Other files, created by Al Kaman, contain typed chronologies of Watergate news coverage.
Typed, carbon copy, and photocopied manuscripts for the book include early and intermediate drafts. Some drafts are identified as Woodward's working copies and some as Bernstein's working copies; others are not identified as either Woodward's or Bernstein's. As with All the President's Men, the drafts were typed on six-layered carbon paper, creating numerous copies of each draft. Many contain handwritten corrections or notes from the authors, their assistants, or their editor at Simon and Schuster, Alice Mayhew. As drafts moved back and forth between the parties, sections became separated or mixed and portions of one draft may be split between Woodward's files and Bernstein's files.
The Final Days was written in two parts covering "22 areas of inquiry" as stated in the authors' foreword. Part I contained 20 chapters examining various periods, events, and individuals from April 1973 to July 1974. Part II covered the period of July 24 to August 9. As published, the chapters in Part I were untitled, but Woodward and Bernstein used topical headings for each section as they worked. As sections of the book developed and text was moved from one draft to the next, headings changed or overlapped. Drafts for Part I of the book are labeled with their original working headings in the container list. They are roughly in the order that arrived at the Ransom Center and do not exactly correspond to the final arrangement of the chapters in the published book. Drafts for Part II of the book are headed by date and are in chronological order as in Part II of the published book.
Other materials include photographs used in the book, galley proofs with Woodward's handwritten corrections, copies of the book's Newsweek excerpts, and a first edition copy of the book with text marked by Woodward.
Also in the subseries are photocopies and notes related to Woodward's research on Nixon and Mark Felt in the 1980s and 1990s.
Subseries C. Shadow, 1989, 1997-2001 (3 boxes)
Subseries C. contains materials related to the first chapter of Woodward's 1999 book Shadow: Five Presidents and the Legacy of Watergate. The chapter focused on Gerald Ford's pardon of Nixon is represented by transcriptions of taped interviews that Woodward conducted with Gerald Ford and individuals who served under Ford or Nixon. Unlike the interviews for All the President's Men and The Final Days, these interviews were conducted on the record and all files are open for research. Included are interviews with high-level Nixon and Ford officials such as James Schlesinger and Alexander Haig. Also present are photocopies of presidential papers from the Ford Library and the National Archives, research notes and outlines, clippings of news stories about the pardon, and computer printout drafts of the chapter.
The small amount of correspondence includes a photocopy of a letter from Ford to Woodward expressing appreciation for the book, and a letter from Frank Fox accompanying several articles by Fox on Ford and Nixon. Notes and comments from Woodward's research assistant Jeff Glasser are found throughout the materials.
In addition to the Shadow materials are items related to a Ford article written by Woodward soon after finishing Shadow. Created for a book on the winners of the John F. Kennedy Library Foundation's Profile in Courage Award, the piece is documented with one folder of computer printout drafts, correspondence, and publicity materials for the Kennedy Library and the award.
Subseries D. Clippings, 1973-1976, 1982 (2 boxes)
The Clippings subseries contains reviews, editorials, and articles from newspapers, magazines, and wire services. They are grouped topically for All the President's Men (book), All the President's Men (movie), and The Final Days. There is also a grouping for "1976" which contains clippings on both the movie and The Final Days, and a grouping of interviews and stories about Woodward and Bernstein in general.
Most of the clippings are from the United States with a small number related to The Final Days from the United Kingdom. The materials are very similar to those in the Clippings subseries in the Bernstein series, but are not as extensive.
Subseries E. Personal, 1970-1999 (.5 box)
Woodward's personal materials contain mementos of his Watergate reporting for the Washington Post and books he co-authored with Bernstein. The bulk of the materials date from 1970 to 1976, with a few items dating as late as 1999.
Two folders of handwritten and typed speech notes form the bulk of the subseries. Accompanying these notes are photographs and programs from various speeches and appearances, including photos from a 1976 Meet the Press television broadcast featuring Woodward and Bernstein. Other items include letters in response to applications Woodward submitted at the Washington Post and the New York Times in the early 1970s, press badges from 1974 to 1981, and personal letters from friends and colleagues. Notable among these are letters from Dan Rather, Judge John Sirica, and a 1974 three page letter addressed to "Bob and Carl" from Katharine Graham praising their efforts and achievements over the previous two years.
Also found in the Personal material is biographical information for Woodward and others at the Washington Post.
Subseries F. Works by Others, 1976, undated (2 boxes)
The Works by Others subseries contains drafts or copies of Watergate related monographs sent to or copied by Woodward. The bulk consists of two manuscript drafts of James Doyle's Not Above the Law (1976) sent by Doyle for Woodward's review. Philadelphia Inquirer editorial cartoonist Tony Auth also sought Woodward's input for his book Behind the Lines (1977), sending copies of cartoons he planned to use.
Photocopied outlines and drafts for Charles Colson's Born Again (1976) and H. R. Haldeman's The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House (1994) were sent to Woodward by publishers or agents. An incomplete photocopy of Haldeman's book The Ends of Power (1978) contains Woodward's handwritten comments and notes.
Series II. Bernstein, 1964-1996 (bulk 1972-1976) (36 boxes)
Subseries A. The Washington Post and All the President's Men, 1964, 1972-1977 (12 boxes)
This subseries contains source files and subject files similar to those in Woodward's Washington Post and All the President's Men materials, and like Woodward's, many of the files remain closed for research to protect the confidentiality of the sources. Files open for research include interviews notes with Howard Baker and John Ehrlichman and copies of telephone records for Howard Hunt and Bernard Barker. Bernstein's Washington Post clippings are more extensive than Woodward's and include a 1968 story by Bernstein. In addition, Bernstein's materials include typed and carbon drafts of some of his Post stories written with Woodward and a typed memo from Bernstein to Washington Post national editor Dick Harwood criticizing a Post Watergate story and detailing how Bernstein believed Watergate coverage should be pursued.
The creation of All the President's Men is well documented with multiple copies of heavily annotated typescripts and carbon drafts, including fragments of two early versions focusing on the burglars. Included are galley proofs with Bernstein's handwritten corrections, and materials relating to excerpts of the book that appeared in Playboy.
Other papers related to the book include Simon and Schuster promotional materials and memorabilia sent to or collected by Bernstein such as brochures and pamphlets from speaking engagements, anti-Nixon bumper stickers and cartoons, and letters sent to Bernstein's father, Al Bernstein, commenting on Carl's achievements.
Documents related to the movie version of All the President's Men include screenplay typescripts, shooting schedules, promotional material, and a letter to Robert Redford from Bernstein and Woodward outlining their thoughts on the film and recommendations for minor changes.
Subseries B. The Final Days, 1972-1976 (13 boxes)
Bernstein's Final Days papers contain early drafts similar to those in the Woodward Final Days subseries, although in lesser amounts. The early drafts include working files from both Bernstein and Woodward, with many of Woodward's files containing extensive input from research assistant Scott Armstrong. One file included the notation "Woodward rewrite of Armstrong rewrite of Woodward original." As with their other manuscripts, Bernstein and Woodward's comments are found throughout each other's drafts.
Arrangement of this subseries is the same as in Woodward's, with topically headed drafts of sections used in Part I of the book followed by chronologically arranged sections used in Part II. None of Bernstein's Final Days source files are currently open for research. Research materials consist of one typed chronology of Watergate news stories similar to those located in the Woodward Final Days subseries
Unique to Bernstein's subseries are heavily edited photocopies of intermediate drafts and a copy-edited final draft. Also specific to Bernstein's files are his extensive handwritten preliminary notes, outlines, and comments on the book's development, as well as several drafts of acknowledgements, forewords, and other front matter used in the book.
Other materials include galley proofs with Bernstein's corrections, copies of the Newsweek book excerpts, and a small amount of correspondence mostly related to reviews and sales figures.
Subseries C. Correspondence, 1973-1976 (5 boxes)
The Correspondence subseries contains letters sent to Woodward and Bernstein at the Washington Post from 1973 to 1976. The bulk of the material is fan mail consisting of requests for photographs or autographs, invitations to speak to groups or attend functions, and suggestions of potential stories in need of investigation. Included are letters praising their work at the Post, their books, and their movie, as well as letters critical of their works, particularly The Final Days.
In addition to the fan mail are letters and telegrams from coworkers and fellow journalists such as Tom Brokaw. Also of note is a copy of the agreement between Bernstein, Woodward, and the Washington Post for the writing of The Final Days.
Woodward and Bernstein were assisted with their correspondence by Laura Quirk. A Post employee, Quirk gathered the letters in batches and sent them to either Woodward or Bernstein, who then forwarded the correspondence to the other after review. This system caused a great deal of overlap in dates among the files, particularly during 1976 when they received a large amount of mail in response to the release of The Final Days and the movie All the President's Men.
There are numerous notes and comments written between Woodward, Bernstein, and Quirk at the tops of letters and on the file folders containing them, including drafts of replies. Several folders of mail dating from 1974 to 1976 include carbons of typed responses along with the incoming letters, but the bulk of the correspondence files contain incoming letters only. The folders of correspondence were received at the Ransom Center in no particular order. During processing they were grouped according to notations written by Quirk on the front of the file folders: "General," "Carl," "Done," and "File." Letters are in rough chronological order within these headings.
Other correspondence is located with Bernstein's All the President's Men memorabilia, Woodward's personal materials, and with promotional materials and clippings for both their books and the movie. All incoming correspondence, other than routine fan mail, is indexed at the end of the finding aid. Included in the index are notes and memos from Washington Post and Simon and Schuster personnel.
Subseries D. Clippings and Videos, 1972-1979, 1996 (5 boxes)
The Clippings and Videos subseries consists primarily of reviews and commentary on the book and movie versions of All the President's Men and on The Final Days. Sources include newspapers, magazines, press releases, publishers' catalogs, and printed advertisements. Many of the clippings were collected by Simon and Schuster or clipping services and include material from the United Kingdom, France, and a small number of Spanish and German language clippings. Some of the clippings sent by individuals include letters or written commentary. Clippings related to The Final Days document the strong criticism directed at Bernstein and Woodward concerning their methods and motives. Of note is a press release from Nixon friend and supporter Rabbi Baruch Korff detailing Korff's assessment of numerous errors and false claims in The Final Days. Bernstein's handwritten comments on the release refute or explain each of Korff's claims.
Clippings under the heading "Bernstein and Woodward/Journalism" include articles on the two reporters, coverage of their speeches and appearances, and stories on journalism in general. Included is a scrapbook created by Bernstein's mother and a typed carbon draft of a Washington Post story by Robert Kaiser on Bernstein leaving the Post. Several articles document Bernstein's activities after his departure, including one dated 1992. Also included is a 1973 Quill article written by Bernstein that details how he and Woodward pursued the Watergate story.
Materials under "Nixon/Watergate" include numerous magazine articles as well as videotapes of a 1987 ABC News program and a 1992 CBS News program. Similar clippings are located in the Clippings subseries of Woodward's papers, but in lesser amounts.

Related Material


Other Watergate related archival materials at the University of Texas at Austin may be found at The Center for American History, The Lyndon Baines Johnson Library and Museum, and The Tarlton Law Library.

Associated Materials


The following books have been transferred to the Ransom Center's book collection:
  • Bernstein, Carl and Bob Woodward
    • All the President's Men (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974)
    • All the President's Men (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1999)
    • All the President's Men (Norwalk CT: Easten Press, 1989)
    • All the President's Men (Norwalk CT: Easten Press, 1999) signed by Carl Bernstein
    • All the President's Men (London: Quartet Books, 1974)
    • Alle Presidentens Menn (Oslo: J. W. Cappelens forlag, 1974) hardback
    • Alle Presidentens Menn (Oslo: J. W. Cappelens forlag, 1974) paperback
    • Alleman van Nixon's Staff (Amsterdam: Contact, 1974)
    • Die Watergate Affäre (Munich-Zurich: Droemer Knaur, 1974)
    • El Escándalo Watergate (Barcelona: Librería Editorial Argos, 1974)
    • Och alla Presidentens Män (Stockholm: Rabén and Sjorgen, 1974)
    • Presidentin Miehet (Helsinki: Werner Söderström Osakeyhtiö, 1974)
    • Todos los Hombres del President (Barcelona: Librería Editorial Argos, 1977)
    • Todos os Homens do Presidente (Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Francisco Alves, 1976)
    • L'affare Watergate (Milan: Garzanti, 1974) hardback
    • L'affare Watergate (Milan: Garzanti, 1974) paperback
    • Watergate: Les Fous du Président (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1974)
    • Watergate: O Processo de uma Presidência (Lisbon: Livraria Bertrand, 1974)
  • Kennedy, John F.Profiles in Courage (New York: Harper, 2000)
  • Woodward, Bob and Carl Bernstein
    • The Final Days (Norwalk, CT: Easten Press, 1999) two copies signed by Bob Woodward
    • The Final Days (London: Coronet Books, 1977)
    • The Final Days (London: Coronet Books, 1988)
    • I Giorni Della Fine (Milan: Garzanti, 1977)
    • Les derniers jours de Nixon (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1976)
    • Los Dias Finales (Barcelona: Librería Editorial Argos,1977)
    • Os Últimos Dias (Rio de Janeiro: Livraria Francisco Alves, 1976)
The following Audiotapes, videotapes, and film have been transferred to the Ransom Center's audio/visual collection. Digital copies are available for research use.
  • Audiotapes:
    • Bernstein Carl. Speech at Cleveland State University, ¼ inch reel, 22 May 1973
    • Korff, Baruch. Interview by Woodward and Armstrong, ¼ inch cassette, 1974
    • Rhodes, John. Interview by Woodward, Bernstein, Armstrong, and Jay, ¼ inch cassette, undated
    • Simons, Howard. Interview by Woodward and Bernstein, ¼ inch cassette, 24 August 1974
    • Woodward, Bob and Carl Bernstein
      • ABC, Studio 3 with Ann Compton, ¼ inch cassette, 19 June 1974
      • Phil Donahue Show, ¼ inch cassette, undated
  • Film:
    • All the President's Men. 35mm movie trailer, undated
  • Videotapes:
    • Our World-1972. ½ inch VHS, 1 copy, 5 March 1987
    • Un Homme un Jour Watergate-I. ¾ inch U-Matic SECAM, 1 copy, 9 August 1974
    • Watergate: The Secret Story, CBS. ½ inch VHS, 3 copies, 17 June 1992

Index Terms


People

Bernstein, Carl, 1944- .
Buchen, Philip W. (Philip William), 1916-2001.
Buzhardt, J. Fred (Joseph Fred), 1924-1978.
Ehrlichman, John.
Ford, Gerald R., 1913-2006.
Goldwater, Barry M. (Barry Morris), 1909-1998.
Haldeman, H. R. (Harry R.), 1926-1993.
Harlow, Bryce Nathaniel, 1916-1987.
Jaworski, Leon.
Korff, Baruch, 1914-1995.
Nixon, Richard M. (Richard Milhous), 1913-1994.
Rhodes, John J. (John Jay), 1943-2003.
Richardson, Elliot L., 1920-1999.
Scott, Hugh, 1900-1994.
St. Clair, James D.
Woodward, Bob

Organizations

Washington Post Company.

Subjects

Investigative reporting -- United States.
Journalism -- United States.
Journalists -- United States.
Political corruption -- United States.
Presidents -- United States -- History -- 20th century.
Press and politics -- United States.
Watergate Affair, 1972-1974.
Title subjects All the president's men (Motion picture). Washington post (Washington, D.C. : 1974.)

Places

United States -- Politics and government -- 1969-1974.

Document Types

Editorial cartoons.
Galley proofs.
Interviews.
Newspapers.
Periodicals.
Photographs.
Political cartoons.
Scrapbooks.
Scripts.
Sound recordings.
Video recordings.

Container List