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University of Texas at Austin

PEN (Organization):

An Inventory of Its Records at the Harry Ransom Center

Creator: PEN (Organization)
Title: PEN (Organization) Records
Dates: 1912-2008 (bulk 1926-1997)
Extent: 352 document boxes, 5 card boxes (cb), 5 oversize boxes (osb) (153.29 linear feet), 4 oversize folders (osf)
Abstract: The records of the London-based writers' organizations English PEN and PEN International, founded by Catharine Amy Dawson Scott in 1921, contain extensive correspondence with writer-members and other PEN centres around the world. Their records document campaigns, international congresses and other meetings, committees, finances, lectures and other programs, literary prizes awarded, membership, publications, and social events over several decades.
Call Number: Manuscript Collection MS-03133
Language: The records are primarily written in English with sizeable amounts in French, German, and Spanish, and lesser amounts in numerous other languages. Non-English items are sometimes accompanied by translations.
Note: The Ransom Center gratefully acknowledges the assistance of the National Endowment for the Humanities, which provided funds for the preservation, cataloging, and selective digitization of this collection. The PEN Digital Collection contains 3,500 images of newsletters, minutes, reports, scrapbooks, and ephemera selected from the PEN Records. An additional 900 images selected from the PEN Records and related Ransom Center collections now form five PEN Teaching Guides that highlight PEN's interactions with major political and historical trends across the twentieth century, exploring the organization's negotiation with questions surrounding free speech, political displacement, and human rights, and with global conflicts like World War II and the Cold War.
Access: Open for research. Researchers must create an online Research Account and agree to the Materials Use Policy before using archival materials. One photo scrapbook (in Box 358) was exposed to moisture and suffered mold damage. The item has been vacuum treated, but mold may still be present. For health reasons, patrons may consider wearing gloves and a dust/mist respirator while handling this item.
Use Policies: Ransom Center collections may contain material with sensitive or confidential information that is protected under federal or state right to privacy laws and regulations. Researchers are advised that the disclosure of certain information pertaining to identifiable living individuals represented in the collections without the consent of those individuals may have legal ramifications (e.g., a cause of action under common law for invasion of privacy may arise if facts concerning an individual's private life are published that would be deemed highly offensive to a reasonable person) for which the Ransom Center and The University of Texas at Austin assume no responsibility.
Restrictions on Use: Authorization for publication is given on behalf of the University of Texas as the owner of the collection and is not intended to include or imply permission of the copyright holder which must be obtained by the researcher. For more information please see the Ransom Center's Open Access and Use Policies.


Administrative Information 1 match


Preferred Citation PEN (Organization) Records (Manuscript Collection MS-03133), Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin.
Acquisition: Purchases and gifts, 1968-2015 (R4104, R5841/5842, R8286, R12143, R15188, 2009-07-006-G, 2015-12-018-P)
Processed by: Anne Kofmehl and Joan Sibley, 2019 Note: This finding aid replicates and replaces information previously available only in a card catalog. Please see the explanatory note at the end of this finding aid for information regarding the arrangement of the manuscripts as well as the abbreviations commonly used in descriptions.
Repository:

Harry Ransom Center, The University of Texas at Austin

Organizational History 54 matches


PEN (originally P.E.N., an acronym for Poets, Essayists, and Novelists) is an international writers' organization with member centres present in over 100 countries worldwide. Founded in London in 1921 by Catharine Amy Dawson Scott, it held its first dinner meeting on October 5th to bring together writers to socialize and share ideas. Forty-one writers attended the inaugural dinner including John Galsworthy, Sheila Kaye-Smith, Louis Golding, and Rebecca West. Within a few years, the organization established centres throughout Europe, and by the 1930s included centres in Asia and South America. The first two Presidents of PEN, John Galsworthy (1921-1933) and H. G. Wells (1933-1936), helped PEN evolve from a dinner club for like-minded literati to a writers' organization focused on free expression and human rights.
The first General Secretary of PEN was Catharine Amy Dawson Scott's daughter, Marjorie Watts. She was secretary from the club's founding until 1926; she later published a book about the early years of PEN. In 1926, Hermon Ould, a founding member and a longtime friend of Dawson Scott, became General Secretary, a position he held until his death in 1951. Ould played a pivotal role in shaping PEN's identity through the difficult years leading up to World War II, the war itself, and its aftermath.
PEN began holding annual congresses in 1923, inviting delegates from all centres to come together in an appointed city for several days of meetings, literary discussions, and social functions. The 1st Congress was held in London with 11 centres in attendance. In 1926, at the 4th Congress held in Berlin, the PEN Charter was first introduced by President John Galsworthy. In this document, PEN laid out its mission as a worldwide writers' organization dedicated to freedom of expression, recognizing the importance of literature as a unifying theme between nations and across cultures, and promoting peace and friendship among writers and intellectuals. The charter was officially ratified in 1948 at the 20th Congress in Copenhagen, Denmark.
In the early years, PEN members and leaders made a concerted effort to remain apolitical and avoid political debate and strife. These efforts eventually weakened under the growing threat of National Socialism in Germany. As tensions emerged on the global stage, PEN could no longer ignore the political conflicts. A pivotal moment came at the 11th Congress in Dubrovnik in 1933. H. G. Wells, then the newly-elected President of PEN, led a campaign against the burning of books by Nazis in Germany. The German PEN centre refused to participate in the protest, and worse, tried to prevent Ernst Toller (who was Jewish) from speaking out about wider injustices taking place within German PEN. As a result, the German centre's membership was revoked and not reestablished until well after the end of World War II.
After the expulsion of the German centre, PEN began to take a more active role in protesting the treatment of writers and intellectuals in countries under authoritarian control. PEN members and leaders campaigned on behalf of writers such as Arthur Koestler, who benefitted from PEN's protestations and was released from prison in Spain in 1937. By 1938, PEN had formed a refugee writers' fund tasked with assisting those trying to flee Nazi-occupied nations. Hermon Ould and Storm Jameson (the new President of English PEN), played a pivotal role in advocating on behalf of these exiled writers, helping them in ways large (resettlement in England) and small (providing typing paper and other resources) to survive and continue their work.
Just as World War II took root, another type of war was sparked within PEN. Jules Romains was elected President of PEN International in 1936, the first international President not from England. In July of 1941, Romains fled France for America and attempted to form a new PEN organization, European PEN of America, declaring those centres left behind a lost cause. The abandonment caused a great schism between Romains and his few followers and the rest of the PEN leadership, led by Hermon Ould and Storm Jameson. The International President was replaced by a Wartime Presidential Committee comprised of members from several PEN centres who served from 1941 through 1947. The only congress held during the war years, the 17th Congress in London in 1941, served as a rallying cry for the organization. The theme of the event was "Writers in Freedom" and imagined the future they would build in a post-war world.
Hermon Ould continued to serve throughout the war years from a relocated office in Tring, England, the move from London precipitated by the risk of bombings during the Blitz. In 1947, PEN hosted a dinner in Ould's honor, celebrating his 20th anniversary as secretary of the organization. The immediate years after the war found PEN attempting to rebuild centres in nations heavily hurt by Nazi-rule. German PEN returned not as one unified centre, but as two, representing the newly-divided country: the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. Other writers formed exile centres in London and New York. Hermon Ould's death in 1951 marked the end of an era, and his successor as General Secretary, David Carver, took over admist the ever-evolving geopolitical landscape of the Cold War-era. During Carver's tenure, PEN further established itself as more than just a collegial club for writers by taking its place alongside such new post-war allies as UNESCO to continue spreading their influence internationally and strengthen their advocacy for freedom of expression around the globe.
David Carver, like Ould, held the position of General Secretary for a lengthy term from 1951 until his death in 1974. He helped expand PEN's influence beyond Europe and America, planning and holding congresses for the first time in Asia (Tokyo in 1957) and Africa (Ivory Coast in 1967). He also navigated the murky waters of the Cold War and its polarizing effect around the world. Writers continued to face persecution and imprisonment for their opinions across the globe, especially in those nations under Soviet or other authoritarian control (e.g., Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Chile). In response, PEN formed the Writers in Prison Committee in 1960 at the 31st Congress in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. One of the first cases they became involved in was the imprisonment of Wole Soyinka by the Nigerian government, under Major General Yakubu Gowon, in 1967. During the 1960s, David Carver and Arthur Miller, who served as International President from 1965 to 1969, made efforts to form a centre within Russia. These negotiations were tense, and no Russian PEN centre was successfully established until 1988. Two of the congresses planned during David Carver's tenure were either cancelled or postponed due to political strife, those in Iran (1963) and Israel (1973).
From its inception until 1981, PEN International and English PEN largely shared the same administrative body (e.g., Hermon Ould was secretary of both PEN International and the English PEN centre) and operated out of the same London office. In 1981, the organizations were officially split and moved into different offices. Josephine Pullein-Thompson was the secretary of English PEN during this transition and continued to serve in that role until 1993. She also served as President of English PEN from 1994 until 1997.
During the 1980s and 1990s, PEN's reputation as an organization that campaigned on behalf of imprisoned writers and against censorship grew within the international community. In 1981, the Writers in Prison Committee established the Day of the Imprisoned Writer, an annual event to raise awareness of imprisoned writers and to commemorate those killed for their views. PEN played a pivotal role in two high-profile cases, those supporting Salman Rushdie (a fatwa was issued against him in 1989 by the Ayatollah of Iran in response to the publication of The Satanic Verses) and Ken Saro-Wiwa (a writer and environmental activist executed in Nigeria in 1995). The Writers in Prison Committee became an even stronger presence within PEN after these two advocacies and continues to be one of the more active and important groups in PEN today.
PEN remains one of the top international writers' organizations in the world. With more than 140 centres in over 100 countries worldwide, its presence and work remain strong. PEN members continue to champion the organization's ideals: celebrating literature, defending free expression, protecting writers at risk, supporting writers in exile, and promoting linguistic rights around the globe. London continues to be home to their central operations. In 2015, Jennifer Clement, the former President of the PEN Mexico centre, was the first woman to be elected President of PEN International. PEN continues to establish new centres and to hold annual congresses. PEN will celebrate its centenary in 2021.

Sources: 6 matches


In addition to materials within the collection, the following sources were used:
Doherty, Megan. PEN International and its Republic of Letters, 1921-1970. New York: Columbia University, Ph.D dissertation, 2011.
Jameson, Storm. Journey from the North: Autobiography of Storm Jameson. London: Collins & Harvill Press, 1969-1970.
Ould, Hermon. Shuttle: An Autobiographical Sequence. London: A. Dakers, 1947.
PEN International. The PEN Story (2013): https://issuu.com/peninternational/docs/the_pen_story
PEN International. Who We Are: Our History: https://pen-international.org/who-we-are/history
Watts, Marjorie. P.E.N.: The Early Years, 1921-1926. London: Archive Press, 1971.
Watts, Marjorie. Mrs. Sappho: The Life of C. A. Dawson Scott, Mother of International P.E.N. London: Duckworth, 1987.

Arrangement 11 matches


Series I. English PEN and PEN International Records, 1915-1986 (bulk 1926-1951): boxes 1-122
  • Subseries A. Correspondence, 1915-1969: boxes 1-76
  • Subseries B. PEN Centres, 1922-1964: boxes 77-79
  • Subseries C. PEN Congresses, 1923-1965: boxes 79-90
  • Subseries D. Administrative Files, 1921-1986: boxes 91-122
    • Campaigns, 1928-1951: boxes 91-98
    • Circulars to members, 1923-1939; 1946: box 99
    • Committees, 1923-1951: box 99
    • Conferences, 1936-1950: boxes 100-101
    • Events, 1923-1946: boxes 101-103
    • Financial and legal files, 1921-1970: boxes 103-106
    • Membership, 1922-1964: boxes 106-109
    • Officers, 1922-1952: boxes 109-110
    • Publications, 1923-1944: boxes 110-112
    • Scrapbooks and clippings, 1921-1986: boxes 112-115
    • Vertical File (unintegrated), 1926-1951: box 115
    • Empty original PEN file folders, undated: boxes 116-122
Series II. PEN International Records, 1921-1981 (bulk 1951-1973): boxes 123-204
  • Subseries A. PEN Centres, 1921-1978: boxes 123-157
  • Subseries B. PEN Congresses and Other Meetings, 1938-1973: boxes 157-196
  • Subseries C. Administrative Files, 1941-1981: boxes 196-204
    • Campaigns, 1951-1981: boxes 196-199
    • Officers, 1952-1977: boxes 200-203
Series III. English PEN Records, 1912-2008 (bulk 1976-1997): boxes 205-362
  • Subseries A. General Correspondence, 1952-1995: boxes 205-210
  • Subseries B. PEN Congresses and Other Meetings, 1926-1998: boxes 211-233
  • Subseries C. PEN Committees, 1931-2008: boxes 233-255
  • Subseries D. Administrative Files, 1920-2006: boxes 255-348; card boxes 353-357
    • General information, 1942-2001: boxes 255-256
    • Archives and early records, 1921-1998: boxes 257-258
    • Awards, 1965-1997: boxes 258-261
    • Campaigns, 1938-1993: boxes 262-263
    • Events, 1953-2000: boxes 263-271
    • Financial and legal files, 1939-2000: boxes 271-283
    • Mailings, 1930-1998: boxes 284-288
    • Membership, approximately 1939-2006: boxes 288-332; card boxes 353-357
    • Officers, 1917-2002: boxes 332-340
    • Publications, 1941-2003: boxes 340-348
  • Subseries E. Photographs and Other Visual Materials, 1912-1990: boxes 348-352, oversize boxes 358-362

Scope and Contents 197 matches


The records of the London-based writers' organizations English PEN and PEN International, founded by Catharine Amy Dawson Scott in 1921, contain extensive correspondence with writer-members and other PEN centres around the world. Their records document campaigns, international congresses and other meetings, committees, finances, lectures and other programs, literary prizes awarded, membership, publications, and social events over several decades. Spanning 1912 to 2008 (bulk 1926-1997), the PEN Records reflect the major historical events in the aftermath of World War I, the interwar period, World War II, and the Cold War in Europe, Latin America, and the Middle East. Topics of central importance include PEN's work to promote the power of literature to bring people together across cultures, languages, and countries around the globe; fight for freedom of expression; defend writers imprisoned and/or persecuted for their ideas and work; support writers in exile; and encourage broader transmission of literature through translation. The collection also highlights PEN's relationships with allied international organizations sharing similar concerns, UNESCO and Amnesty International among them.
The records are arranged into three series: I. English PEN and PEN International Records, 1915-1986 (bulk 1926-1951; boxes 1-122); II. PEN International Records, 1921-1981 (bulk 1951-1973; boxes 123-204); and III. English PEN Records, 1912-2008 (bulk 1976-1997; boxes 205-362). The records are primarily written in English with sizeable amounts in French, German, and Spanish, and lesser amounts in numerous other languages. Non-English items are sometimes accompanied by translations. The records in Series I. arrived in three accessions between 1968 and 1978 and were previously accessible via an onsite card catalog. Materials in Series II. (acquired 1990) and Series III. (three accessions, 2003-2015) were listed, but not organized or cataloged. This finding aid replicates and replaces information previously available in the card catalog and now incorporates descriptions for the previously uncataloged materials.
The bulk of the PEN Records revolve around the work of three long-serving PEN officers based in London: Hermon Ould (International General Secretary, 1926-1951), David Carver (International General Secretary, 1951-1974), and Josephine Pullein-Thompson (English PEN General Secretary, 1976-1993, and English PEN President, 1994-1997). Storm Jameson, who was English PEN President during the difficult war years from 1939 through 1944 is also well represented. Their correspondence joins that of many other prominent English PEN centre officers and members, including Lettice Cooper, E. M. Forster, Antonia Fraser, John Galsworthy, William Golding, Graham Greene, Ronald Harwood, Michael Holroyd, Francis King, John Lehmann, Rosamond Lehmann, Iris Murdoch, Kathleen Nott, Harold Pinter, J. B. Priestley, V. S. Pritchett, George Bernard Shaw, Stephen Spender, Tom Stoppard, Noel Streatfeild, C. V. Wedgwood, H. G. Wells, and Rebecca West. Because PEN's membership diversified greatly from its initial poets, playwrights, essayists, and novelists, their correspondence represents numerous biographers, critics, editors, historians, journalists, literary agents, radio producers, publishers, and translators, as well as genre writers who produced children's, detective, fantasy, mystery, romance, and science fiction works. PEN also frequently corresponded outside its membership with heads of state, cultural ambassadors, politicians, state officials, lawyers, activists, businesses and organizations, publishers, editors, and the general public.
Other PEN centres around the world also corresponded with General Secretaries Hermon Ould and David Carter as they carried out PEN International's activities, and their correspondence is often rich and informative. Many distinguished authors were correspondents, including Heinrich Böll, Nadine Gordimer, Seamus Heaney, Yasunari Kawabata, Thomas Mann, Arthur Miller, Elmer Rice, Salman Rushdie, and Wole Soyinka to name only a few. Among the correspondents are 43 Nobel laurates in Literature as well as six winners of the Nobel Peace Prize.The most extensive PEN centre files represent America, France, Germany, Hungary, Ireland, Scotland, and the Writers in Exile centre in London. Among the most frequent centre correspondents were Jean de Beer, Heinrich Böll, Richard Friedenthal, Yves Gandon, Robert Goffin, László Kéry, Robert Neumann, Jan Parandowski, Carlos de Radzitzky, Paul Tabori, Victor E. van Vriesland, and Sophia Wadia.
The annual PEN Congress files are also of great substance, especially for the 1st through 41st Congresses held between 1923 and 1976. Files for the 28th (1956) and 46th (1976) Congresses are particularly extensive because those congresses took place in London. Other notable congresses are the historic 11th Congress held in Dubrovnik in 1933 shortly after the Nazi book burnings and the 17th Congress which met in London in 1941, the only congress held during World War II. In addition to correspondence related to planning, arrangements, and themes for these international meetings, the records include key information such as texts of proceedings and resolutions, reports of the International General Secretary, and PEN International Executive Committee meeting agendas and minutes.
PEN's frequent campaigns to financially assist refugee writers are evidenced through correspondence, financial documents, and files for funds administered such as the Refugee Writers' Fund, the Fund for Exiled Writers and its successor, the Fund for Intellectual Freedom. The records also reflect the pivotal advocacy role PEN played in many high-profile cases of literary and political significance: helping free journalist Arthur Koestler from a death sentence in 1937; supporting Salman Rushdie in exile during the fatwa affair; and campaigning on behalf of Ken Saro-Wiwa and Wole Soyinka, two writers imprisoned for their work in Nigeria.
The International Executive Committee minutes located in the PEN Congress files are complemented by 12 English PEN Executive Committee minute books spanning 1931 through 1970. Additional administrative files also document a number of other PEN committees, among them the Books for Prisoners Committee, the Censorship Committee, the Women Writers Committee, and most extensively, the Writers in Prison Committee formed in 1960.
Throughout the PEN Records are draft writings by both well-known and more obscure authors. These include speeches given at congresses, conferences, lecture series, and dinners, as well as original fiction, poetry, and essays submitted to various literary contests or anthologies compiled or co-published by PEN. Files for two such anthologies contain full drafts of unpublished manuscripts: Fundamental Values (1943-1944) and London Calling (1942), the latter edited by Storm Jameson. Some production materials for the English PEN monthly newsletter, PEN News (1927-1964) are present, although most published centre newsletters have been transferred to the Ransom Center Library and are now cataloged in the online University of Texas Library Catalog.
The Series Descriptions provide much more detailed descriptions of the contents of each of the three series of the PEN Records. This finding aid also includes an Index of Correspondents (11,825 names); an Index of Writings; and supplemental information compiled in Appendix I: PEN Officers; Appendix II: PEN Congresses; and Appendix III: PEN Centres.
Special Note on PEN Names
To simplify searching, the name "PEN" has generally been used rather than the earlier form "P.E.N." The only uses of "P.E.N." in this finding aid are found in the Index of Correspondents when names from letterheads were cited.
Because most PEN centre names have changed over the years, files for the PEN centres have been alphabetized according to this form: "PEN Centre: country (city)" in order to keep centre materials together logically and easier to navigate by users.
For example:
  • PEN Centre: Canada (Montreal), rather than PEN Québec (per current centre website).
  • PEN Centre: Canada (Toronto), rather than PEN Canada (per current centre website).
Appendix III. in this finding aid provides a listing of all PEN centres arranged by geographic region, gives their founding year (if available), the current centre name (from centre website), and the current standard name form used by libraries (if available).
Physical Processing Note
All of the PEN Records have been rehoused into archival-quality boxes, folders, and sleeves. While most of the materials in Series I. had already been placed in protective mylar sleeves during earlier processing, none of the materials in Series II. and Series III. had been rehoused. During physical rehousing of the latter two series, potentially damaging metal fasteners were removed and papers that had been clipped together were placed in white paper sleeves to maintain their previous groupings. Many brittle papers, such as newspaper clippings, were also been placed into protective paper or mylar sleeves.
Some original PEN file folders for materials in Series I. were previously retained and are now located in boxes 116-122. For Series II. and III., original folder titles and any additional notes written on the original folders were removed and kept with the contents of that folder during physical processing. Member files in Series III. were originally filed in nearly 2,000 individual folders. These were replaced with individual white paper sleeves and placed in alphabetical groups in archival-quality file folders unless the individual member file was extensive enough to warrant its own archival folder or folders. For each member, the segments of their original member folder with labeling and other handwritten notes, usually regarding membership status, were also retained.

Series Descriptions 149 matches

Related Material 9 matches


The research value of the PEN Records is enhanced by the presence of many related collections at the Ransom Center. Examples include a number of authors who were PEN officers or active members, among them A. L. Barker, Sybille Bedford, Christine Brooke-Rose, Joseph Conrad, Nancy Cunard, John Galsworthy, Nadine Gordimer, Storm Jameson, Francis King, D. H. Lawrence, Norman Mailer, W. Somerset Maugham, Arthur Miller, J. B. Priestley, Elmer Rice, George Bernard Shaw, C. P. Snow (no online finding aid), Tom Stoppard, Ernst Toller, Paul Valéry, and H. G. Wells.
Additional collections support research into human rights and censorship issues, including papers of Maurice Cranston, Morris Ernst, Erle Stanley Gardner (Court of Last Resort materials; no online finding aid), Fannie Hurst, Michael Josselson (Congress of Cultural Freedom materials), Jessica Mitford, Nicolas Nabokov, Oliver La Farge, and the Transcription Centre. These and related University of Texas at Austin holdings at the Benson Latin American Collection, the Briscoe Center for American History, and the Tarlton Law Library are referenced in the University of Austin's Human Rights Documentation Initiative.
Some current and historical records are still held by the headquarters of PEN International and English PEN in London. Sound recordings from both organizations have been digitized by the British Library. Yale University has a small collection of C. A. Dawson Scott – Marjorie Watts papers and the University of Tulsa Special Collections Library in Oklahoma holds a large group of English PEN correspondence files dated approximately 1940 to 1980. Extensive records for the PEN American Center reside at Princeton University and the online PEN American Digital Archive provides access to more than 1500 hours of audio and video recordings dating back to 1966. Holdings of other PEN centre records, such as for Ireland and Scotland, are located at their national libraries. French centre records are held by the Institut Mémoires de l'édition contemporaine (IMEC) near Caen, France. The German Exile Archive (Deutsches Exilarchiv) in Frankfurt am Main holds records from the German-speaking Writers Abroad centre. Records for the South African PEN Centre are held at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg.
Other archival collections of international organizations with similar human rights concerns include Amnesty International (1961- ) at the International Institute of Social History in Amsterdam and Human Rights Watch (1978- ) at Columbia University.

Separated Material 7 matches


Art: An oil portrait painting of Hermon Ould (1944) by the the German artist Kurt Schwitters is located in the Kurt Schwitters Art Collection.
Photographs: 25 items are located in the Photography Literary File Collection, chiefly images of or pertaining to the Rupert Brooke Memorial Statue on the island of Skyros, Greece, created by sculptor Michael Tombros.
Publications: The Ransom Center Library holds several important PEN serial publication runs, including English PEN's PEN News (1927-1964), PEN Newsletter of the English Centre (1962-1973), PEN Broadsheet (1977-1989), as well as newsletters from a number of additional PEN centres.
Vertical File: Printed ephemera (mimeos and photoduplicated information, brochures, pamphlets, newspaper clippings, etc.) in Series I. was removed during original cataloging and separately housed in the Vertical File (12 boxes). These printed materials have now been reintegrated into Series I., with the exception of published PEN centre newsletters, which were transferred to the Ransom Center Library and cataloged as serial publications.

Index Terms 3 matches


Correspondents

Beer, Jean de, 1911-1995.
Böll, Heinrich, 1917-1985.
Carver, David.
Cooper, Lettice Ulpha, 1897- .
Dawson Scott, C. A. (Catharine Amy), 1865-1934.
Elstob, Peter, 1915-2002.
Forster, E. M. (Edward Morgan), 1879-1970
Fraser, Antonia, 1932- .
Friedenthal, Richard, 1896-1979.
Galsworthy, John, 1867-1933.
Jameson, Storm, 1891-1986.
Kéry, László, 1920- .
King, Francis, 1923-2011.
Lehmann, John, 1907-1987.
Miller, Arthur, 1915-2005.
Neumann, Robert, 1897-1975.
Ould, Hermon, 1886-1951.
Parandowski, Jan, 1895-1978.
Pullein-Thompson, Josephine.
Radzitzky, Carlos de.
Spender, Stephen, 1909-1995.
Tabori, Paul, 1908-1974.
Vriesland, Victor E. van (Victor Emanuel), 1892-1974.
Wadia, Sophia, 1901- .
Watts, Marjorie.
Wells, H. G. (Herbert George), 1866-1946
West, Rebecca, 1892-1983.

Organizations

Arts Council of Great Britain.
British Council.
English Centre of International PEN.
PEN (Organization).
PEN (Organization). Writers in Prison Committee.
Unesco.

Subjects

Authors -- 20th century.
Authors -- Political and social views.
Authors, Exiled.
Censorship -- 20th century.
Cold War.
Freedom of expression.
Freedom of the press -- 20th century.
Human rights.
Literature and history -- Africa.
Literature and history -- East Asia.
Literature and history -- England -- London.
Literature and history -- Europe.
Literature and history -- Latin America.
Literature and history -- Middle East.
Literature and history -- United States.
Literature, Modern -- 20th century.
Literature -- Societies, etc. -- History -- 20th century.
London (England) -- History -- 20th century.
Politics and literature.
Prisoners -- 20th century.
Publishers and publishing -- 20th century.
Refugees -- 20th century.
Women authors -- 20th century.
World War, 1939-1945.

Document Types

Clippings.
Correspondence.
Financial documents.
Meeting minutes.
Newsletters.
Pamphlets.
Photographs.
Posters.
Reports.

Container List 116 matching container list entries