University of Texas at Austin

The Greenwich Village Bookshop Door: A Portal to Bohemia, 1920-1925

Each signature may be linked to the others by up to 53 thematic connections. Some are common to many signatures; others highlight unusual, yet notable, associations and interests. Friendships are not represented because so many signers were friends. Go to "The Bohemians" to view and interact with all 53 connections.


Franklin Abbott

Achmed Abdullah

Mary Aldis

George William Amis

Sherwood Anderson

Egmont Arens

Mary Austin

Eugene S. Bagger


Winslow M. Bell

William Rose Benét

Florence Blackstone

Paul J. Blackstone

David William Bone

Albert Boni

Charles Boni

Ernest Augustus Boyd

Will Bradley

Berton Braley

Max M. Breslow

Heywood Broun

Albert Brush

Arthur Caesar

Henry Seidel Canby

Jonathan Cape

Gene Carr

Oscar Edward Cesare

Christine Challenger

Betty Ross Clarke

Helen Louise Cohen

Alta May Coleman

Seward Collins

Frank Conroy

George Cram Cook

John Cournos

Bosworth Crocker

J. Vincent Crowne

Homer Croy

Mary Carolyn Davies

Helena Smith Dayton

Fred Erving Dayton

Floyd Dell

S. A. DeWitt

Roy Dickinson

Charles Divine

Alice Willits Donaldson

John Dos Passos

Theodore Dreiser

Joseph Drum

Robert L. Eaton

Laurie York Erskine

Wilfred Ewart

Henry Guy Fangel

John Chipman Farrar

Hugh Ferriss

Arthur Davison Ficke

John Bernard Flannagan

Dwight Franklin

James Earle Fraser

Joseph Lewis French

Robert Frothingham

Barney Gallant

Porter Garnett

Susan Glaspell

Montague Glass

Joseph Gollomb

Herbert S. Gorman

Stephen Graham

Dorothy L. A. Grant

Harry Wagstaff Gribble

William Gropper

Louise Closser Hale

Harry Hansen

Sadakichi Hartmann

Josephine Herbst

John Herrmann

W. E. Hill

Elisabeth Sanxay Holding

Robert Cortes Holliday

Terence Holliday

Guy Holt

Holland Hudson

Peter Lord Templeton Hunt

Frank Townsend Hutchens

Lewis Jackson

Norman Jacobsen

Rutger Bleecker Jewett

Orrick Johns

Merle De Vore Johnson

Jeanne Judson

Harry Kemp

Bernice Lesbia Kenyon

John G. Kidd

William A. (William Albion) Kittredge

Eastwood Lane

Lawrence Langner

Christian Leden

Courtenay Lemon

Sinclair Lewis

Ludwig Lewisohn

Max Liebermann

Nicholas Vachel Lindsay

Preston Lockwood

Hendrick Willem Van Loon

Lingard Loud

Pierre Loving

Orson Lowell

C. R. Macauley

Kenneth Macgowan

Lawton Mackall

Hector MacQuarrie

John Albert Macy

Jane Mander

Don Marquis

H. A. Mathes

William McFee

Alexander McKay

Hawley McLanahan

Charles M. McLean

Ada Jaffray McVickar

Scudder Middleton

George Middleton

John Mistletoe

Roy Mitchell

Christopher Morley

Robert Nathan

Dudley Nichols

Robert Nichols

Charles Norman

Joseph Jefferson O'Neil

Florence O'Neill

Ivan Opffer

Martha Ostenso

Lou Paley

Edmund Lester Pearson

Basil H. Pillard

Ethel McClellan Plummer

Alexander Popini

William MacLeod Raine

Ben Ray Redman

Charles J. Reed

Lola Ridge

Felix Riesenberg

W. Adolphe Roberts

Edwin Arlington Robinson

Edwin (Ted) Meade Robinson

Bruce Rogers

L. Stuart Rose

Herb Roth

Edward Royce

Tony Sarg

Jacob Salwyn Schapiro

Walter Schnackenberg

Thomas Seltzer

Fern Forrester Shay

Margaret Badollet Caldwell Shotwell

Emil Siebern

Upton Sinclair

John Sloan

Thorne Smith

David Tosh Smith

Robert A. Smith

Charles Somerville

Vincent Starrett

Vilhjalmur Stefansson

Donald Ogden Stewart

Gordon Stiles

Emily Strunsky

Genevieve Taggard

Gardner Teall

Sara Teasdale

Lloyd M. Thomas

Basil Thompson

Paul Thompson

Helen Thurlow

Adolph Treidler

Peter Underhill

Harvey P. Vaughn

Walter Vodges

C. A. Voight

Mary Heaton Vorse

Webb Waldron

J. Leeming Walker

Foster Ware

John V. A. Weaver

Luther E. Widen

Edward Arthur Wilson

Lily Winner

Robert L. Wolf

Cuthbert Wright


Theodore F. Zucker




Egmont Arens

Albert Brush

George Cram Cook

Bosworth Crocker

Mary Carolyn Davies

Floyd Dell

Theodore Dreiser

Susan Glaspell

Norman Jacobsen

Harry Kemp

John G. Kidd

Lawrence Langner

Pierre Loving

Kenneth Macgowan

George Middleton

Lloyd M. Thomas

Mary Heaton Vorse


The Provincetown Players are arguably the single most influential community associated with the bookshop: at least eighteen participants, including ten of the group's playwrights, signed the door. Begun as an amateur theater experiment in 1915, this group had a profound influence on the path of American theater in the twentieth century. Part of the larger “little theater" movement that was gathering strength in the 1910s, the Players helped to bring a new energy to what many saw as a foundering atmosphere in mainstream theater, dominated by melodramas and other worn-out forms.




The Players were founded in Provincetown, Massachusetts in the summer of 1915, when prominent Villagers like George Cram Cook, Susan Glaspell, John Reed, Marsden Hartley and others gathered regularly to discuss the future of the American arts. Led by Cook, the group—all amateurs in the theater—decided to undertake an experiment in producing plays. They performed at Mary Heaton Vorse's wharf, and the next year they repeated the experiment, with the addition of new members including the young Eugine O'Neill. In the fall of 1916 they went to New York and produced a short season of one-act plays on Macdougal Street. The plays were variously experimental and of mixed quality, produced by the pointedly anti-professional, cast and crew drawn from the Bohemian community. Under the passionate leadership of Cook, the group grew over the next few years; plays of O'Neill, Glaspell, and Edna St. Vincent Millay were particularly well received.




The group’s success eventually led to the its demise; over the years, the Players’ innovative productions met such acclaim that many were produced in mainstream, profit-driven theaters; from Cook’s point of view, the Players were no longer an engine of change, but part of the establishment. In 1921, O'Neill's The Emperor Jones, featuring actor Charles Sidney Gilpin, became a huge hit, and the production moved to Broadway. The Players disbanded a year later. Reconstituted soon after, the group continued in name for several more years, but the moment of transformation was over.





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    Creator: Unidentified photographer

    Title: Photograph of unidentified people in Provincetown, Massachusetts

    Item Date: Undated

    Medium: Gelatin silver print

    Material Type: Photographs

    ADA Caption: Photograph of a Dock in Provincetown

    Curatorial Department: Photography Collection

    Collection Name: Eugene O'Neill Literary File Photography Collection

    Stack Location: Literary File: Eugene O'Neill

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Summering Bohemians in Provincetown, MA, undated